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珀金斯Perkins2506-15发动机故障排除手册

详细描述

Troubleshooting

2506-15 Industrial Engine

M G A (Engine)

MGB (Engine)

M G D (Engine)

Note: A sight glass in the low pressure supply line is

Cylinder Head Gasket

helpful in diagnosing air in the fuel.

1.  Remove the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly

and Assembly, “Cylinder Head - Remove” for the

correct procedure.

4.  Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics

of the  fuel. Refer to  the Operation and

Maintenance Manual for information on improving

the characteristics of the fuel during cold weather

operation.

2.  Check the cylinder liner projection. Refer  to

Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting for the

correct procedure.

5.  Check the fuel pressure during engine cranking.

Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter. Refer

to Systems Operation, Testing and  Adjusting,

“Fuel System” for the correct pressure values. If

the fuel pressure is low, replace the fuel filters. If

the fuel pressure is still low, check the following

items: fuel transfer pump, fuel  transfer pump

coupling, and fuel pressure regulating valve.

3.  Install a new cylinder head gasket and new water

seals in the spacer plate. Refer to Disassembly

and Assembly, “Cylinder Head - Install” for the

correct procedure.

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Engine Vibration

Air Inlet and Exhaust System

1.  Check for an air filter restriction. Clean plugged air

filters or replace plugged air filters. Refer to the

Operation and Maintenance Manual for additional

information.

Probable Causes

•  Vibration damper

2.  Check the air inlet and  exhaust system for

restrictions and/or for leaks. Refer to Systems

Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and

Exhaust System”.

•  Engine supports

•  Driven equipment

•  Engine misfiring or running rough

i02557763

Engine Oil in Cooling System

Recommended Actions

Vibration Damper

Check the vibration damper for damage. Install  a

new vibration damper, if  necessary. Inspect the

mounting bolts for damage and/or for wear. Replace

any damaged bolts. Refer to the Disassembly and

Assembly manual.

Probable Causes

•  Engine oil cooler core

•  Cylinder head gasket

Engine Supports

Recommended Actions

Inspect the mounts and the brackets while you run

the engine through the speed range. Look for mounts

and brackets that are loose and/or broken. Tighten

all of the mounting bolts. Install new components, if

necessary.

Engine Oil Cooler Core

1.  Inspect the engine oil cooler core for leaks. If a

leak is found, replace the oil cooler core. Refer to

Disassembly and Assembly, “Engine Oil Cooler

- Remove” and Disassembly and  Assembly,

“Engine Oil Cooler - Install”.

Driven Equipment

Check the alignment and the balance of the driven

equipment.

2.  Drain the crankcase and refill the crankcase with

clean engine oil. Install new  engine oil filters.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual

for more information.

Engine Misfiring or Running Rough

Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Engine Misfires,

Runs Rough or Is Unstable”.

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Hydraulic Cylinder Lock

Engine Will Not Crank

Check for fluid in the cylinders (hydraulic  cylinder

lock) by removing the  individual electronic unit

injectors.

Probable Causes

•  Batteries

Note: Drain the fuel from the cylinder head. Fuel will

flow from the cylinder head into the cylinders when

the electronic unit injector is removed.

•  Battery cables

Internal Engine Fault

•  Starting circuit

Disassemble the engine. Refer to the Disassembly

and Assembly  manual. Inspect the internal

components for the following conditions:

•  Starting motor solenoid

•  Starting motor

•  Seizure

•  Flywheel ring gear

•  Hydraulic cylinder lock

•  Internal engine fault

•  Broken components

•  Bent components

i02557812

Recommended Actions

Excessive Black Smoke

Batteries and/or Battery Cables

Probable Causes

1.  Inspect the main power switch, battery posts,

and battery cables for loose connections  and

for corrosion. If the battery cables are corroded,

remove the battery cables and clean the battery

cables. Tighten any loose connections.

•  Flash file

•  Position sensors

2.  Inspect the batteries.

•  Atmospheric pressure sensor

•  Inlet manifold pressure sensor

•  “Fuel Position” and/or “FRC Fuel Limit”

a.  Charge the batteries. Refer to local operating

procedures.

b. Load test the batteries. Refer to local operating

procedures.

•  Fuel quality

Starting Motor Solenoid  or Starting

Circuit

•  Valve adjustment

•  Air inlet or exhaust system

1.  Test the operation of the starting motor solenoid.

2.  Check the wiring to the starting motor solenoid.

Recommended Actions

Flash File

Starting Motor or Flywheel Ring Gear

Verify that the correct flash file is installed. Refer to

the Troubleshooting Guide, “Flash Programming” for

information.

1.  Test the operation of the starting motor.

2.  Inspect the pinion on the starting motor pinion and

the flywheel ring gear for damage.

Position Sensors

1.  Check the calibration of the position sensors.

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine  Position

Sensors - Calibrate”.

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Troubleshooting Section

2.  Verify that the crankshaft and the camshaft drive

gears are set with the proper orientation. Refer to

the Disassembly and Assembly manual.

a.  Check for an air filter restriction.

b. Perform a visual  inspection of the system for

restrictions and/or for leaks  in the air inlet

piping .

Atmospheric Pressure Sensor

1.  Remove the sensor.

2.  Ensure that the turbocharger is in good repair.

3.  Check the exhaust system for restrictions.

2.  Remove debris, moisture, or ice from the sensor.

3.  Install the sensor.

4.  Repair any leaks that were  found. Remove

any restrictions that were found. Replace  any

damaged components that were found.

4.  Check the electronic service tool  for active

diagnostic codes on the  sensor. If no active

diagnostic code exists, the sensor may be used.

The correct reading for the atmospheric pressure

is between 50  kPa (7.25 psi) and 100  kPa

(14.5 psi).

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Excessive Engine  Oil

Consumption

Inlet Manifold Pressure Sensor, “Fuel

Position”, and/or “FRC Fuel Limit”

Probable Causes

•  Oil leaks

1.  Monitor the status of “Fuel Position” and “Rated

Fuel Limit” while the engine is operating under full

load. If “Fuel Position” equals “Rated Fuel Limit”

and “Fuel Position” is less than “FRC Fuel Limit”,

the Electronic Control Module (ECM) is providing

the correct control. Otherwise, proceed to the next

Step.

•  Oil level

•  Engine oil cooler

•  Turbocharger

•  Valve guides

•  Piston rings

2.  Verify that there are no active diagnostic codes for

the inlet manifold pressure sensor.

3.  Monitor the status of “Boost  Pressure” and

“Atmospheric Pressure” on the electronic service

tool. When the engine is  not running, “Boost

Pressure” should be 0 kPa (0 psi).

•  Incorrect installation of the compression ring and/or

the intermediate ring

Note: A fault with the “FRC Fuel Limit” will only cause

black smoke during acceleration. A fault  with the

“FRC Fuel Limit” will not cause black smoke during

steady state operation.

Recommended Actions

Oil Leaks

Fuel Quality

Locate all oil leaks. Repair the oil leaks. Check for a

dirty crankcase breather.

Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics

of the fuel. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

Manual for  information on improving  the

characteristics of the  fuel during cold weather

operation.

Oil Level

Inspect the engine oil level. Remove any extra  oil

from the engine. Recheck all fluid levels.

Valve Adjustment

Engine Oil Cooler

Check the valve adjustment.  Refer to Systems

Operation, Testing and Adjusting for information on

valve adjustments.

Check for leaks in the engine oil cooler. Check for oil

in the engine coolant. If necessary, repair the engine

oil cooler.

Air Inlet or Exhaust System

1.  Check the air inlet system for restrictions and/or

for leaks.

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Troubleshooting Section

Turbocharger

Fuel Leaks

Check the air inlet manifold  for oil. Check for oil

leakage past the seal rings in the  impeller end of

the turbocharger shaft. If  necessary, repair the

turbocharger.

Check the fuel pressure during engine  cranking.

Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter. Refer to

Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting for the

correct pressure values. If the fuel pressure is low,

replace the fuel filters. If the fuel pressure is still low,

check the following items: fuel transfer pump, fuel

transfer pump coupling, and fuel pressure regulating

valve.

Valve Guides

If the valve guides are worn, repair the cylinder head.

Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,  “Inlet and

Exhaust Valve Guides - Remove and Install”.

Fuel Quality

Piston Rings or Incorrect Installation

of the Compression Ring  and/or the

Intermediate Ring

Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics

of the fuel. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

Manual for  information on improving  the

characteristics of the fuel  during cold weather

operation.

Inspect the internal engine components. Replace any

worn components.

Engine Speed/Timing

Perform a calibration of the position sensor. Refer to

the Troubleshooting Guide, “Engine Position Sensor

- Calibrate”.

i02558236

Excessive Fuel Consumption

Electronic Unit Injectors

Probable Causes

•  Engine operation

1.  Check for correct installation  of the J1/P1

and J2/P2 Electronic Control  Module (ECM)

connectors and the  electronic unit injector

connectors. Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide,

“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

•  Fuel leaks

•  Fuel quality

2.  Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test”  on the

electronic service tool in order to determine if all

of the injector solenoids are being energized by

the ECM.

•  Engine speed/timing

•  Electronic unit injectors

•  Air inlet and exhaust system

•  Accessory equipment

3.  Perform the “Cylinder Cutout  Test” on the

electronic service tool in order to  identify any

injectors that might be misfiring.  Refer to the

Troubleshooting Guide, “Injector Solenoid Circuit

- Test”.

Recommended Actions

Air Inlet and Exhaust System

Engine Operation

1.  Inspect the air filter for a restriction. If the air filter

shows signs of being plugged, clean the air filter

or replace the air filter.

Use the electronic service tool to check the “Current

Totals” for a high load factor which would be indicative

of poor operating habits.

2.  Check the air inlet and  exhaust system for

restrictions and/or for leaks. Refer to Systems

Operation, Testing and Adjusting.

Note: Engine operation may also be  affected by

environmental conditions such as wind and snow.

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Troubleshooting Section

Accessory Equipment

Note: If the camshaft is replaced, the valve lifters

must also be replaced.

Check all accessory equipment for faults that may

create excessive load on the engine.  Repair any

damaged components or replace any  damaged

components.

3.  Adjust the engine valve lash. Refer to Systems

Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Engine Valve

Lash - Inspect/Adjust”.

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i02558241

Excessive Valve Lash

Excessive White Smoke

Probable Causes

•  Lubrication

Note: Some white smoke may be present  during

cold start-up conditions when the engine is operating

normally. If the white smoke persists, there may be a

fault.

•  Valve lash

Probable Causes

•  Diagnostic codes

•  Flash file

•  Valve train components

Recommended Actions

Lubrication

•  Starting aids

1.  Remove the valve mechanism cover. Refer to

Disassembly and Assembly, “Valve Mechanism

Cover - Remove and Install”.

•  Water temperature regulators

•  Electronic unit injectors

•  Fuel supply

2.  Check the lubrication in the valve compartment.

Ensure that there is adequate engine oil flow in

the valve compartment. The passages for  the

engine oil must be clean.

•  Cooling system

•  Component wear

Valve Lash

Recommended Actions

Adjust the engine valve  lash. Refer to Systems

Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Engine Valve Lash

- Inspect/Adjust”.

Diagnostic Codes

Use the electronic service tool to check for active

diagnostic codes. Troubleshoot any active diagnostic

codes before continuing with this procedure.

Valve Train Components

1.  Inspect the following components of the valve

train:

Flash File

•  Rocker arms

•  Pushrods

Verify that the correct flash file  is installed in the

Engine Control Module (ECM). The flash file  that

is installed in the  ECM can be displayed on the

“Configuration” screen on the electronic service tool.

•  Valve lifters

•  Camshaft

Starting Aids

•  Valve stems

•  Rocker shafts

Block Heater (If Equipped)

Ensure that the block heater is functioning correctly.

2.  Check the components for the following conditions:

abnormal wear, excessive wear, straightness, and

cleanliness. Replace parts, if necessary.

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Troubleshooting Section

Water Temperature Regulators

i02558246

Fuel Dilution of Engine Oil

Check the water temperature regulators for correct

operation. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and

Adjusting, “Water Temperature Regulator - Test” for

the proper procedure.

Probable Causes

Electronic Unit Injectors

•  Seals on the case of the electronic unit injector or

on the barrel of the electronic unit injector

Use the electronic service tool to perform the cylinder

cutout test. Try to simulate the conditions for the test

that were experienced during operation. Cut out each

cylinder individually for approximately one minute in

order to isolate any misfiring cylinders. If the misfire

can be isolated to a specific  cylinder, proceed to

Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test”.

•  Seals on the fuel line adapter for the cylinder head

•  Electronic unit injector

•  Fuel supply manifold

•  Fuel transfer pump seal

Fuel Supply

Recommended Actions

1.  Monitor the exhaust for smoke while the engine

is being cranked.

Seals on the Case of the Electronic Unit

Injector or on the Barrel of the Electronic

Unit Injector

If no smoke is present, there may be a fault with

the fuel quality or there may be a fault in the fuel

supply.

2.  Check the fuel pressure. Refer  to Systems

Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel System

Pressure - Test”.

Look for signs  of damage to the seals  for the

electronic unit injectors. Replace any seals that are

leaking.

3.  Ensure that the fuel system has been primed.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Fuel System - Prime” for the correct procedure.

Seals on the Fuel Line Adapter for the

Cylinder Head

Look for signs of damage to the seals on the fuel line

adapter for the cylinder head. Repair any leaking fuel

lines or components and/or replace any leaking fuel

lines or components.

4.  Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

5.  Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics

of the  fuel. Refer to  the Operation and

Maintenance Manual for information on improving

the characteristics of the fuel during cold weather

operation.

Electronic Unit Injector

Look for signs of  damage to the electronic unit

injectors. If necessary, repair the  electronic unit

injectors or replace the electronic unit injectors.

Cooling System

Check for an internal coolant leak. Check for coolant

in the engine oil, coolant in the cylinders, and coolant

in the exhaust system. Refer to Systems Operation,

Testing and Adjusting, “Cooling System - Test”.

Fuel Supply Manifold

Look for signs of damage to the fuel supply manifold.

Fuel Transfer Pump Seal

Component Wear

Ensure that the  weep hole is not  plugged. If

necessary, repair the fuel transfer pump or replace

the fuel transfer pump.

Check the following components for excessive wear:

•  Valves

•  Pistons

•  Rings

•  Cylinder liners

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Troubleshooting Section

i02558247

•  J61/P61 Customer connectors

Intermittent Engine Shutdown

•  J300/P300 Connectors for the injector solenoid

harness

•  J401/P401 and J402/P402 Engine position

sensor connectors

Note: Use this procedure only if  the engine shut

down completely and it was necessary to restart the

engine.

2.  Check the associated wiring for the following

conditions: damage, abrasion, corrosion, and

incorrect attachment.

Probable Causes

•  Diagnostic codes or event codes

•  Operating conditions

•  Electrical connections

•  Remote shutdown

Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Electrical

Connectors - Inspect”.

Note: Aftermarket engine protection devices usually

interrupt power to the  ECM. Check for correct

installation and for operation of aftermarket engine

protection devices. It may be necessary to bypass

the aftermarket devices in order to continue testing.

•  Circuit breakers and fuses

•  Fuel supply

Remote Shutdown

1.  Access the status screen that displays the remote

shutdown switch status. The remote shutdown

switch status on the electronic  service tool is

called “Injection Disable”.

Note: If the fault only occurs under certain conditions

such as high engine  speed, full load or engine

operating temperature, then perform the test under

those operating conditions.

2.  Refer to Table 8 and measure the voltage between

Recommended Actions

each terminal that is listed and the engine ground.

Table 8

Diagnostic Codes or Event Codes

Measured Voltage at

“User Shutdown” Status

J1-62

Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may

cause the engine to shutdown. Connect the electronic

service tool and check for active codes  and/or for

logged codes. Troubleshoot any  codes that are

present before continuing with this procedure.

Injection Enabled

Injection Disabled

24 VDC

0.9 VDC

3.  If the voltage is not in the proper range, refer to

Operating Conditions

Troubleshooting, “Switch Circuits - Test”.

The engine may be shut down due to low pressure

levels or other factors. Connect the electronic service

tool and check for active shutdowns or  diagnostic

codes.

Circuit Breakers and Fuses

Check the circuit breakers and  fuses. The circuit

breakers may  exceed the trip point  due to

overheating. Reset the circuit breakers if the circuit

breakers are tripped. Replace any blown fuses.

If a shutdown is  active, “Injection Disabled” will

appear in the third box of any status screen on the

electronic service tool.

Fuel Supply

An engine shutdown event will appear on a J1939

device if the device is capable of displaying diagnostic

codes.

Check for a fault in the fuel supply.  Verify that the

fuel pressure is correct. Refer to Systems Operation,

Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel System Pressure - Test”

for additional information.

Electrical Connections

1.  Check the following connectors  for proper

installation:

•  J1/P1 and J2/P2 connectors for the Electronic

Control Module (ECM)

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Troubleshooting Section

i02558254

Oil Cooler

Low Engine Oil Pressure

Check the oil cooler for plugging or blockage. Clean

the oil cooler core. If necessary, replace the engine

oil cooler. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Oil

Cooler - Remove” and Disassembly and Assembly,

“Oil Cooler - Install”.

NOTICE

Do not operate  engine with low oil pressure.  Engine

damage will  result. If  measured engine oil  pressure

is low, discontinue  engine operation until  the fault is

corrected.

Fuel Dilution

Check for presence of fuel in lubricating oil. Refer to

the Troubleshooting Guide, “Fuel Dilution of Engine

Oil”.

Probable Causes

•  Engine oil level

Engine Wear

Inspect the camshaft and/or camshaft  bearings

for excessive wear. Inspect the crankshaft and/or

crankshaft bearings. Excessive wear to  discrete

components may be an indication of a blocked  oil

passage. Use an oil pressure gauge to check  the

oil pressure at the main oil  gallery. This will help

determine if the excessive wear is from low system

pressure or from passages that are blocked.

•  Engine oil filters and oil filter bypass valve

•  Engine oil pump

•  Engine oil cooler

•  Fuel dilution

•  Engine wear

i02558264

Recommended Actions

Low Power

Engine Oil Level

Inspect the engine oil level. If engine oil is low add

engine oil. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

Manual.

Probable Causes

•  Diagnostic codes

•  Event codes

Engine Oil Filters and Oil Filter Bypass

Valve

•  Engine rating

Check the service  records of the  engine for

information that is related to the last oil change.  If

necessary, perform an oil change on the engine and

replace the engine oil filters.

•  Programmable parameters

•  Cold mode

Check the operation of oil filter bypass valve. Clean

the bypass valve and the  housing. If necessary,

install new parts.

•  Electrical connectors

•  Circuit for electronic unit injectors

•  Fuel supply

Engine Oil Pump

Check for blockage of the inlet screen for the engine

oil pump. Check the components of the engine oil

pump for excessive wear. If necessary, repair the oil

pump or replace the oil pump.

•  Inlet manifold pressure sensor, rated fuel position

and/or FRC fuel position

•  Air inlet and exhaust system

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Troubleshooting Section

Recommended Actions

Circuit for the Electronic Unit Injector

Note: If the fault only occurs under certain conditions,

test the engine under those conditions. Examples

of certain conditions are  high rpm, full load and

engine operating temperature. Troubleshooting

the symptoms under other  conditions can give

misleading results.

Inspect the J2/P2 ECM connector and the J300/P300

electronic unit injector  connector for proper

connections. Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide,

“ Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.  Cut out each

cylinder in order to isolate a  misfiring cylinder or

cylinders. If the results are inconclusive, shut off half

of the cylinders and repeat the cylinder cutout test

on the active cylinders that are remaining in order to

locate those cylinders that are missing. Refer to the

Troubleshooting Guide, “Injector Solenoid Circuit -

Test”.

Diagnostic Codes and Event Codes

Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may

cause poor performance. Connect the electronic

service tool and check for active codes and for logged

codes. Troubleshoot any codes that  are present

before continuing with this procedure.

Fuel Supply

Check for a fault in the fuel supply and verify the fuel

pressure. For further information, refer to Systems

Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel  System

Pressure - Test”.

Engine Rating

Verify that the correct engine rating is being used for

the application.

Inlet Manifold Pressure Sensor, Rated

Fuel Position and/or FRC Fuel Position

Programmable Parameters

Check the following parameter on  the electronic

service tool:

1.  With the engine at full load, monitor “Fuel Position”

and “Rated Fuel Limit” on the status  screen. If

“Fuel Position” does not equal “Rated Fuel Limit”,

then check air inlet manifold pressure.

•  Desired speed input

Verify that the injector trim files are programmed.

2.  Verify that there are no active diagnostic codes

that are associated with the inlet manifold pressure

sensor or with the atmospheric pressure sensor.

Cold Mode

3.  Monitor air inlet  manifold pressure and

atmospheric pressure for normal operation on the

status screen.

Monitor the status screen on the electronic service

tool in order to verify that the engine has exited cold

mode. Observe the reading for coolant temperature

on the electronic service tool. The  engine should

exit cold mode whenever the coolant temperature is

above 18 °C (64 °F).

Air Inlet and Exhaust System

Check the air  inlet and exhaust systems  for

restrictions and for  leaks. Refer to Systems

Electrical Connectors

Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Air  Inlet and

Exhaust System”. Look for  an indication of the

warning lamp or restriction indicators that are tripped

if the filters are equipped with these devices. These

indicators are associated with plugged filters. Replace

the plugged air filters or clean the plugged air filters.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual.

Repair any leaks that are found in the system.

Check the associated wiring for damage, abrasion,

corrosion or incorrect attachment on the following

connectors. J1/P1 and J2/P2 ECM  connectors,

J61/P61 customer connector  (optional), and

J403/P403 throttle position sensor connector. Refer

to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Electrical Connectors

- Inspect” for additional information.

i02558272

Mechanical Noise (Knock) in

Engine

Probable Causes

•  Driven equipment

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Troubleshooting Section

•  Gear train

i02558282

Noise Coming from Cylinder

•  Cylinder head and related components

•  Crankshaft and related components

•  Pistons

Probable Causes

•  Diagnostic codes

•  Fuel quality

Recommended Repairs

Driven Equipment

•  Electronic unit injectors

•  Valve lash

Inspect the alignment and the balance of the driven

equipment. Inspect the  coupling. If necessary,

disconnect the driven equipment and test the engine.

Recommended Actions

Gear Train

Diagnostic Codes

Inspect the condition of the gear train.

Inspect the engine oil filters for nonferrous material.

Flaking of nonferrous material could indicate worn

gear train bearings.

Check for active diagnostic codes on the electronic

service tool. Troubleshoot any active  diagnostic

codes before continuing with this procedure.

Cylinder Head and Related Components

Fuel Quality

Inspect the components of the valve train for good

condition. Check for signs of damage and/or wear

to the valves, cylinder head gasket, etc. Inspect the

condition of the camshafts. If a camshaft is replaced,

new valve lifters must be installed.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for

information on the characteristics of the fuel.

Electronic Unit Injectors

1.  Check the connectors on the Electronic Control

Module (ECM). Check for correct installation of

the J1/P1 and J2/P2 ECM connectors. Inspect the

unit injector wiring harness from the ECM to the

J300/P300 valve cover entry connector. Refer to

the Troubleshooting Guide, “Electrical Connectors

- Inspect”.

Crankshaft

Inspect the crankshaft and the related components.

Inspect the connecting rod bearings and the bearing

surfaces on the crankshaft.  Make sure that the

bearings are in the correct position.

Look for worn  thrust plates and wear  on the

crankshaft.

2.  Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test”  on the

electronic service tool in order to determine if all

of the injector solenoids are being energized by

the ECM. Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide,

“Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test”.

Check the counterweight bolts.

Pistons

3.  Perform the “Cylinder Cutout  Test” on the

electronic service tool in order to  identify any

injectors that may be misfiring.

Make sure that the piston pins are correctly installed.

Inspect the pistons for wear or damage.

Valve Lash

Check the engine valve lash settings. Inspect the

valve train for sufficient lubrication. Check damage to

valve train components which may cause excessive

valve lash. Repair any faults that are found. Refer to

the Troubleshooting Guide, “Excessive Valve Lash”.

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KENR6224

49

Troubleshooting Section

i02558285

Poor Acceleration or Response

3.  Perform the cylinder cutout test on the electronic

service tool in order to identify any injectors that

might be misfiring. Refer to  Troubleshooting,

“Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test” for the proper

procedure.

Probable Causes

•  Cold mode operation

•  Flash file

Fuel Position, Rated Fuel Limit, and FRC

Fuel Position

1.  Monitor the status of “Fuel Position” and “Rated

Fuel Limit” while the engine is operating under full

load. If “Fuel Position” equals “Rated Fuel Limit”

and “Fuel Position” is less than “FRC Fuel Limit”,

the electronics are operating correctly. Otherwise,

proceed to the next Step.

•  Electrical connectors

•  Electronic unit injectors

•  Fuel Position, Rated Fuel Limit, and  FRC Fuel

Position

2.  Verify that there are no active diagnostic codes for

the inlet manifold pressure sensor.

•  Air inlet and exhaust system

•  Fuel supply

3.  Monitor the “Intake Manifold Pressure”  and

“Atmospheric Pressure” for normal operation.

When the engine is not running, “Boost Pressure”

should be 0 kPa (0 psi).

Recommended Actions

Air Inlet and Exhaust System

Cold Mode Operation

1.  Check for an air filter restriction indicator. Clean

plugged air filters or replace plugged air filters.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual.

Monitor the status screen on the electronic service

tool in order to verify that the engine has exited cold

mode. Observe the reading for coolant temperature

on the electronic service tool. The  engine should

exit cold mode whenever the coolant temperature is

above 18 °C (64 °F).

2.  Check the air inlet and  exhaust system for

restrictions and/or leaks.  Refer to Systems

Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and

Exhaust System”.

Flash File

Fuel Supply

Verify that the correct flash file is installed.

1.  Check the fuel lines for  the following faults:

restrictions, collapsed lines, and pinched lines. If

faults are found with the fuel lines, repair the lines

and/or replace the lines.

Electrical Connectors

Check for correct installation of the J1/P1 and J2/P2

connectors for the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

Check for correct installation of  the JH300/P300

electronic unit injector connectors.  Refer to the

Troubleshooting Guide, “Electrical Connectors -

Inspect”.

2.  Check the fuel tank for foreign objects which may

block the fuel supply.

NOTICE

Do not crank  the engine continuously  for more than

30 seconds. Allow  the starting motor  to cool for  two

minutes before cranking the engine again.

Electronic Unit Injectors

1.  Use the electronic service tool to determine if

there are any active diagnostic  codes for the

electronic unit injectors.

3.  Prime the fuel system if any of  the following

procedures have been performed:

2.  Perform the injector solenoid test on the electronic

service tool in order to  determine if all of the

injector solenoids are being energized  by the

ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid

Circuit - Test” for the proper procedure.

•  Replacement of the fuel filters

•  Service on the low pressure fuel supply circuit

•  Replacement of electronic unit injectors

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50

KENR6224

Troubleshooting Section

Note: A sight glass in the low pressure supply line is

helpful in diagnosing air in the fuel. Refer to Systems

Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Air in Fuel - Test”

for more information.

4.  Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics

of the  fuel. Refer to  the Operation and

Maintenance Manual for information on improving

the characteristics of the fuel during cold weather

operation.

5.  Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter while

the engine is being cranked. Refer to Systems

Operation, Testing and Adjusting for the correct

pressure values. If the  fuel pressure is low,

replace the fuel filters. If  the fuel pressure is

still low, check the following items: fuel transfer

pump, fuel transfer pump  coupling, and fuel

pressure regulating valve. Refer  to Systems

Operation/Testing and Adjusting  for more

information.

i02558323

Valve Rotator or Spring Lock

Is Free

Probable Causes

•  Valve rotator

•  Spring locks

•  Valve springs

•  Valves

Recommended Actions

1.  Determine the cause of an engine overspeed that

would crack the valve rotator. Repair the condition.

2.  Inspect the following components for damage:

•  Valve rotators

•  Spring locks

•  Valve springs

•  Valves

Note: Ensure that the valve has not contacted the

piston. If the valve has contacted the piston, check

the exhaust system for debris.

3.  Replace any damaged components.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

KENR6224

51

Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting with a

Diagnostic Code

Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide,  “Diagnostic

Code Cross Reference” for the complete list of the

diagnostic codes and a description of each  code.

There is a troubleshooting  procedure for every

diagnostic code. Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide,

“Troubleshooting With A Diagnostic Code”.

i02559723

Flash Codes

When a diagnostic code is activated, the Electronic

Control Module (ECM) transmits information about

the code over the J1939  data link. Some J1939

devices may display the code. However, the code will

be displayed with a J1939 Diagnostic Code. Refer to

the Troubleshooting Guide, “Diagnostic Code Cross

Reference” for a cross-reference between J1939

Diagnostic Code and diagnostic codes.

Flash codes are a simple way to alert the operator

that a fault exists with  the control system for the

engine or with the operation of  the engine. Each

flash code is a two digit number. The diagnostic lamp

flashes in order to identify the flash code.

Do not confuse diagnostic codes with event codes.

Event codes alert the operator that  an abnormal

operating condition such as low oil pressure or high

coolant temperature has been detected. Refer to

the Troubleshooting Guide, “Troubleshooting with

an Event Code” for additional information on event

codes.

EXAMPLE

Note: Flash Code 27 would flash on the diagnostic

lamp in the following manner:

•  Two short flashes

•  Hesitation

•  Seven short flashes

For the descriptions of  the flash codes, refer to

Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Code Cross Reference”.

i02559725

Diagnostic Codes

Diagnostic Codes

Diagnostic codes alert the operator that a fault  in

the electronic system has been detected. Diagnostic

codes also indicate the nature  of the fault to the

service technician. The electronic service  tool is

a software program that is  designed to run on a

personal computer. Diagnostic codes may be viewed

on a personal computer  that has the electronic

service tool software. Diagnostic codes consist of

the component identifier (CID) and the failure mode

identifier (FMI).

Component Identifier (CID)  – The CID is a number

with three or four  digits. The CID indicates the

component that generated the code. For example,

the CID number 0001 identifies the fuel injector for

the number one cylinder.

Failure Mode Identifier (FMI)  – The FMI is a two

digit code that indicates the type of failure.

Illustration 10

g01117578

Output voltage from a typical analog temperature sensor

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52

KENR6224

Troubleshooting Section

Illustration 10 indicates the signal range for a typical

analog sensor. Diagnostic codes will be generated if

the sensor’s output signal is below 0.2 VDC or above

4.8 VDC.

i02558820

Diagnostic Code  Cross

Reference

Active Diagnostic Codes

Faults in the electronic control system are reported

via these types of codes:  flash codes, CID/FMI

diagnostic codes, and event codes.

An active diagnostic code represents a fault in the

electronic control system. Correct the fault as soon

as possible.

For information  on flash  codes, refer to

Troubleshooting, “Flash Codes”.

When the ECM generates an active diagnostic code,

the “Active Alarm” indicator (“Engine Control Alarm

Status” on the electronic service tool) is activated

in order to alert the operator.  If the condition that

generated the code is momentary,  the message

disappears from the list of active diagnostic codes.

The diagnostic code becomes logged.

For information on  CID/FMI codes, refer  to

Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Codes”.

For information  on event codes,  refer to

Troubleshooting, “Event Codes”.

Logged Diagnostic Codes

Use Table 10 as a  cross-reference between the

various types of codes.

When the ECM generates a diagnostic code,  the

ECM logs the code  in permanent memory. The

ECM has an internal diagnostic clock. Each ECM

will record the following information when a code is

generated:

•  The hour of the first occurrence of the code

•  The hour of the last occurrence of the code

•  The number of occurrences of the code

This information  is a valuable indicator  for

troubleshooting intermittent faults.

A code is cleared from memory  when one of the

following conditions occur:

•  The service technician manually clears the code.

•  The code does not recur for 100 hours.

•  A new code is logged and there are already ten

codes in memory. In this case, the oldest code is

cleared.

Some diagnostic codes may be easily  triggered.

Some diagnostic codes may log occurrences that did

not result in complaints. The most likely cause of an

intermittent fault is a faulty connection or damaged

wiring. The next likely cause is a component failure.

The least likely cause is the failure of an electronic

module. Diagnostic codes that are logged repeatedly

may indicate a fault that needs special investigation.

Note: Always clear logged diagnostic codes after

investigating and correcting the fault which generated

the code.

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KENR6224

53

Troubleshooting Section

Table 9

Cross Reference  for Diagnostic  Codes

J1939

Description of  Diagnostic Code

Flash Code

CID

(1)

/FMI

(2)

Code

Diagnostic

Code

71

72

73

74

75

76

21

21

32

24

24

27

27

51

38

38

13

13

34

34

34

34

58

-

0001-11

0002-11

0003-11

0004-11

0005-11

0006-11

0041-03

0041-04

0091-08

0100-03

0100-04

0110-03

0110-04

0168-02

0172-03

0172-04

0174-03

0174-04

0190-02

0190-09

0190-11,

0190-12

0247-09

0248-09

0253-02

0254-12

0261-13

0262-03

0262-04

0268-02

0273-03

0273-04

0274-03

0274-04

0342-02

0342-11

0342-12

J0651-11

J0652-11

J0653-11

J0654-11

J0655-11

J0656-11

J0678-3

J0678-4

J0091-8

J0100-3

J0100-4

J0110-3

J0110-4

J0168-2

J0172-3

J0172-4

J0174-3

J0174-4

J0190-2

J0190-9

J0190-11

J0190-12

J0639-09

-

Cylinder #1 Injector other failure mode

Cylinder #2 Injector other failure mode

Cylinder #3 Injector other failure mode

Cylinder #4 Injector other failure mode

Cylinder #5 Injector other failure mode

Cylinder #6 Injector other failure mode

8 Volt DC Supply voltage above normal

8 Volt DC Supply voltage below normal

Throttle Position Sensor abnormal frequency, pulse width, or period

Engine Oil Pressure Sensor voltage above normal

Engine Oil Pressure Sensor voltage below normal

Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor voltage above normal

Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor voltage below normal

Electrical System Voltage erratic, intermittent, or incorrect

Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor voltage above normal

Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor voltage belowe normal

Fuel Temperature Sensor voltage above normal

Fuel Temperature Sensor voltage below normal

Engine Speed Sensor erratic, intermittent, or incorrect

Engine Speed Sensor abnormal update rate

Engine Speed Sensor mechanical failure

Engine Speed Sensor failure

SAE J1939 Data Link abnormal update rate

Perkins Data Link not communicating

-

-

Personality Module erratic, intermittent, or incorrect

Electronic Control Module Error

-

-

42

21

21

56

25

25

26

26

34

34

34

J0637-13

J0620-03

J0620-04

J0630-02

J0102-03

J0102-04

J0108-03

J0108-04

J0723-2

Engine Timing Calibration calibration required

5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply voltage above normal

5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply voltage below normal

Programmed Parameter Fault erratic, intermittent, or incorrect

Turbocharger Outlet Pressure Sensor voltage above normal

Turbocharger Outlet Pressure Sensor voltage below normal

Atmospheric Pressure Sensor voltage above normal

Atmospheric Pressure Sensor voltage below normal

Secondary Engine Speed Sensor erratic, intermittent, or incorrect

Secondary Engine Speed Sensor other failure mode

J0723-11

J0723-12

Secondary Engine Speed Sensor failure

(continued)

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54

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Troubleshooting Section

(Table 9, contd)

Cross Reference  for Diagnostic  Codes

J1939

Description of  Diagnostic Code

Flash Code

CID

(1)

/FMI

(2)

Code

Diagnostic

Code

-

-

0799-12

1690-08

-

-

Need Service tool update

Throttle #2 Position Sensor abnormal frequency, pulse width,  or

period

(1)  Component Identifier

(2)  Failure Mode Identifier

Table 10

Cross Reference  for Event  Codes

J1939 Event

Code

Flash Code

Event Code

Description of  Event Code

-

-

-

-

E085

-

Engine Shutdown Overridden

E162-1

E162-2

E255-1

E360-1

E360-2

E360-3

E361-1

E361-2

E361-3

E362-1

E362-2

E362-3

E363-1

E363-2

E368-1

E368-2

J0102-15

J0102-16

-

High Boost Pressure (Warning)

High Boost Pressure (Alert)

Diagnostic Reset

46

46

46

61

61

61

35

35

35

65

65

-

J0100-17

J0100-18

J0100-01

J0110-15

J0110-16

J0110-00

J0190-15

J0190-16

J0190-00

J0174-15

J0174-16

J0172-15

J0172-16

Low Engine Oil Pressure (Warning)

Low Engine Oil Pressure (Alert)

Low Engine Oil Pressure (Shutdown)

High Engine Coolant Temperature (Warning)

High Engine Coolant Temperature (Alert)

High Engine Coolant Temperature (Shutdown)

Engine Overspeed (Warning)

Engine Overspeed (Alert)

Engine Overspeed (Shutdown)

High Fuel Supply Temperature (Warning)

High Fuel Supply Temperature (Alert)

High Intake Manifold Air Temperature (Warning)

High Intake Manifold Air Temperature (Alert)

-

If the cause of the diagnostic code is a fault  in the

i02559726

common wire, two cylinders will be affected because

of the shared common wire for the  electronic unit

injectors.

CID 0001 FMI 11

System Response:

Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will

continue to attempt to operate the  electronic unit

injector after the code has been logged.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to

operate the electronic unit injector. The ECM detects

an open circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the

electronic unit injector.

The electronic unit injector may not operate while the

condition exists.

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KENR6224

55

Troubleshooting Section

Possible Performance Effect:

•  Engine misfires

If the cause of the diagnostic code is a fault  in the

common wire, two cylinders will be affected because

of the shared common wire for the injectors.

•  Low power

System Response:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector

Solenoid Circuit - Test”

The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will

continue to attempt to operate the injector after the

code has been logged.

Results:

The injector may not operate while  the condition

exists.

•  OK  – STOP.

Possible Performance Effect:

i02559727

CID 0002 FMI 11

•  Engine misfires

•  Low power

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector

Solenoid Circuit - Test”

Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting

to operate the injector. The ECM detects an  open

circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the injector.

Results:

•  OK  – STOP.

If the cause of the diagnostic code is a fault in  the

common wire, two cylinders will be affected because

of the shared common wire for the injectors.

i02559729

CID 0004 FMI 11

System Response:

The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will

continue to attempt to operate the injector after the

code has been logged.

Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to

operate the electronic unit injector. The ECM detects

an open circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the

electronic unit injector.

The injector may not operate while  the condition

exists.

Possible Performance Effect:

•  Engine misfires

If the cause of the diagnostic code is a fault  in the

common wire, two cylinders will be affected because

of the shared common wire for the  electronic unit

injectors.

•  Low power

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector

Solenoid Circuit - Test”

System Response:

The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will

continue to attempt to operate the  electronic unit

injector after the code has been logged.

Results:

•  OK  – STOP.

The electronic unit injector may not operate while the

condition exists.

i02559728

CID 0003 FMI 11

Possible Performance Effect:

•  Engine misfires

•  Low power

Conditions Which Generate This Code:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector

Solenoid Circuit - Test”

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting

to operate the injector. The ECM detects an  open

circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the injector.

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56

KENR6224

Troubleshooting Section

Results:

If the cause of the diagnostic code is a fault  in the

common wire, two cylinders will be affected because

of the shared common wire for the  electronic unit

injectors.

•  OK  – STOP.

i02561040

System Response:

CID 0005 FMI 11

The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will

continue to attempt to operate the  electronic unit

injector after the code has been logged.

Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The electronic unit injector may not operate while the

condition exists.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to

operate the electronic unit injector. The ECM detects

an open circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the

electronic unit injector.

Possible Performance Effect:

•  Engine misfires

If the cause of the diagnostic code is a fault in  the

common wire, two cylinders will be affected because

of the shared common wire for the  electronic unit

injectors.

•  Low power

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector

Solenoid Circuit - Test”

System Response:

Results:

The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will

continue to attempt to operate the  electronic unit

injector after the code has been logged.

•  OK  – STOP.

i02559721

The electronic unit injector may not operate while the

condition exists.

CID 0041 FMI 03

Possible Performance Effect:

•  Engine misfires

Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The voltage level of the 8 volt supply is above normal.

System Response:

•  Low power

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector

Solenoid Circuit - Test”

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log  the

diagnostic code. The diagnostic code can be viewed

on a display module or on the electronic service tool.

The ECM flags all digital sensors as invalid data and

all digital sensors are set to the respective default

values.

Results:

•  OK  – STOP.

i02561042

CID 0006 FMI 11

Possible Performance Effect:

•  The engine may experience low power.

Troubleshooting:

Conditions Which Generate This Code:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Digital

Sensor Supply Circuit - Test”

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to

operate the electronic unit injector. The ECM detects

an open circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the

electronic unit injector.

Results:

•  OK  – STOP.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

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