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珀金斯Perkins2506-15发动机测试调整手册

详细描述

Systems Operation

Testing and Adjusting

2506-15 Industrial Engine

M G A (Engine)

MGB (Engine)

M G D (Engine)

Remove the valve cover and look for  broken

parts. Repair any broken parts or  replace any

broken parts that are found. Inspect all wiring to

the solenoids. Look for loose connections. Also

look for frayed wires or  broken wires. Ensure

that the connector for the unit injector solenoid

is properly connected. Perform a  pull test on

each of the wires.  Refer to Troubleshooting,

“Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. Inspect the posts

of the solenoid for arcing. If arcing or evidence

of arcing is found, remove the  cap assembly.

Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Electronic

Unit Injector - Remove”. Clean the  connecting

posts. Reinstall the cap assembly and  tighten

the solenoid nuts to a torque of 2.5 ± 0.25  N·m

(22 ± 2 lb in). Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,

“Electronic Unit Injector - Install”.

i02551444

Finding Top Center Position

for No. 1 Piston

Table 5

Required Tools

Tool

A

Part Number

CH11148

Part Description

Engine turning tool

Timing pin

Qty

1

B

27610286

1

The No.  1 piston at top  center (TC) on  the

compression stroke is the starting point of all timing

procedures.

3.  Check the valve lash setting for the cylinder of the

suspect unit injector. Refer to Systems Operation,

Testing and Adjusting, “Engine  Valve Lash -

Inspect/Adjust”.

4.  Ensure that the bolt that holds the unit injector is

tightened to the proper torque. If necessary, loosen

the bolt that holds the unit injector and tighten the

bolt to a torque of 55 ± 10 N·m (40.6 ± 7.4 lb ft).

5.  Remove the suspect unit injector and check the

unit injector for signs of exposure to coolant. Refer

to Disassembly and Assembly, “Electronic Unit

Injector - Remove”. Exposure to coolant will cause

rust to form on the injector.  If the unit injector

shows signs of exposure to coolant, remove the

injector sleeve and inspect the injector sleeve.

Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Electronic

Unit Injector Sleeve - Remove”.  Replace the

injector sleeve if the injector sleeve is damaged.

Check the unit injector for an excessive  brown

discoloration that extends beyond the injector tip. If

excessive discoloration is found, check the quality

of the fuel. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing

and Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test”. Replace the

seals on the injector and reinstall  the injector.

Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Electronic

Unit Injector - Install”. Also refer to Disassembly

and Assembly, “Electronic Unit Injector Sleeve -

Install”.

g01278981

Illustration 24

Typical example

6.  If the problem is not resolved, replace the suspect

1.  Remove both bolts (3) and cover (2) from the

flywheel housing. Remove the plug (1) from the

timing hole in the flywheel housing.

injector with a new injector.

2.  Install Tooling (A) into the  flywheel housing

through the aperture behind the cover (2). Tooling

(A) is used in order to turn the engine flywheel in

the direction of normal engine rotation. Normal

engine rotation is counterclockwise.  Normal

engine rotation is viewed from the flywheel end of

the engine. Turn the engine flywheel until Tooling

(B) engages with the threaded hole in the flywheel.

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26

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

Note: If the flywheel is  turned beyond the point

of engagement, the flywheel  must be turned in

the opposite direction of  normal engine rotation

approximately 45 degrees. Then turn the flywheel in

the direction of normal rotation until the timing bolt

engages with the threaded hole. The procedure will

eliminate the backlash that will occur when the No. 1

piston is put on the top center.

Refer to Operation and Maintenance  Manual,

“Fuel Recommendations” for more information.

3.  If fuel quality is still suspected  as a possible

cause to problems regarding engine performance,

disconnect the fuel inlet line,  and temporarily

operate the engine from a separate  source of

fuel that is known to be good. This will determine

if the problem is caused by  fuel quality. If fuel

quality is determined to be the problem, drain the

fuel system and replace the fuel filters. Engine

performance can be affected by  the following

characteristics:

3.  Remove the front valve mechanism cover from

the engine.

4.  The inlet and exhaust valves for the No. 1 cylinder

are fully closed if  the No. 1 piston is  on the

compression stroke and the rocker arms can be

moved by hand. If the rocker arms  can not be

moved and the valves are slightly open the No. 1

piston is on the exhaust stroke.

•  Cetane number of the fuel

•  Air in the fuel

•  Other fuel characteristics

Note: After the actual stroke position is identified,

and the other stroke position is needed, remove the

timing bolt from the flywheel. The flywheel is turned

360 degrees in a counterclockwise direction. The

timing bolt is reinstalled.

i02551471

Fuel System - Prime

i02551477

NOTICE

Fuel Quality - Test

Use a suitable container  to catch any fuel that might

spill. Clean up any spilled fuel immediately.

Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are performed

by authorized personnel that have had the correct

training.

NOTICE

Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly

clean the area around a  fuel system component that

will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over discon-

nected fuel system component.

Use the following procedure to  test for problems

regarding fuel quality:

Note: This procedure is most common  when the

1.  Determine if water and/or contaminants are

present in the fuel. Check the water separator (if

equipped). If a water separator is not  present,

proceed to Step 2. Drain the water separator, if

necessary. A full fuel tank minimizes the potential

for overnight condensation.

engine has run out of fuel.

1.  Turn the ignition switch to the “OFF” position.

2.  Fill the fuel tank(s) with clean diesel fuel.

Note: A water separator can appear to be full of fuel

when the water separator is actually full of water.

2.  Determine if contaminants are present in the

fuel. Remove a sample of fuel from the bottom

of the fuel tank. Visually inspect the fuel sample

for contaminants. The color of  the fuel is not

necessarily an indication of fuel quality. However,

fuel that is black, brown, and/or similar to sludge

can be an indication of the growth of bacteria or

oil contamination. In cold temperatures, cloudy

fuel indicates that the fuel may not be suitable for

operating conditions.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

KENR6231

27

Testing and  Adjusting Section

•  The engine starts, but the engine continues to

misfire or smoke.

9.  Run the engine with no load until the engine runs

smoothly.

i02571703

Fuel System Pressure - Test

Low Fuel Pressure

Low fuel pressure can cause low power. Low fuel

pressure can also cause  cavitation of the fuel

which can damage the fuel injectors. The following

conditions can cause low fuel pressure:

•  Plugged fuel filters

•  Debris in the check valves for  the fuel priming

pump

•  Debris in the pressure regulating valve

•  Partially open check valve

g01282239

Illustration 25

Typical example

•  Sticking or worn fuel pressure regulating valve in

the fuel transfer pump

3.  Loosen the union of the pipe for the fuel(1).

•  Severe wear on return fuel pressure regulating

valve in the fuel filter base

Note: Do not remove the union completely. Open the

union enough to allow the air that is trapped in the

cylinder head to be purged from the fuel system.

•  Worn gears in the fuel transfer pump

•  Pinched fuel lines or undersized fuel lines

4.  Unlock and operate the hand priming pump (2).

Use a suitable container to collect excess fuel.

•  Old fuel lines that have a reduced interior diameter

that was caused by swelling

5.  Tighten the union of the pipe for the fuel (1).

•  Fuel lines with deteriorating interior surfaces

6.  Operate the hand priming pump until a strong

pressure is felt on the pump. Push the  priming

pump plunger inward. Tighten the plunger by hand

and start the engine.

•  Pinched fuel line fittings or undersized fuel  line

fittings

•  Debris in the fuel tank, fuel lines, or fuel system

components that create restrictions

NOTICE

Do not  crank the engine continuously  for more than

30 seconds.  Allow the  starting motor  to cool  for 30

seconds before cranking the engine again.

High Fuel Pressure

Excessive fuel pressure can cause fuel filter gaskets

to rupture. The following conditions can cause high

fuel pressure:

7.  If the engine will not start, allow the starting motor

to cool for 30 seconds. Repeat  steps 3 to 6 in

order to operate the engine.

•  Plugged orifices in the fuel pressure regulating

valve

8.  Continue to eliminate air from the fuel system if

these events occur:

•  Stuck fuel pressure regulating valve in the  fuel

transfer pump

•  The engine starts, but the engine does not run

evenly.

•  Pinched fuel return line

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28

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

Checking Fuel Pressure

i02551488

Gear Group (Front) - Time

Table 6

Required Tools

Tool

Part Number

Part Description

Qty

A

-

Pressure Gauge

1

g01288627

Illustration 26

To check the fuel transfer pump pressure, remove

the hose assembly (1). Install a pressure gauge, and

start the engine.

g01097754

Illustration 27

Front gear group

Fuel Pressure Readings

(1) Timing marks

(2) Camshaft gear

(3) Adjustable idler gear

(4) Idler gear

The typical fuel pressure of the engine at operating

temperature can vary. When the engine  is under

load, the fuel pressure can be 550 kPa (80 psi).

(5) Cluster gear

(6) Timing marks

(7) Crankshaft gear

(8) Oil pump gear

The performance of the unit injector  deteriorates

when the fuel pressure drops below 241 kPa (35 psi).

Low power complaints and erratic operation  can

occur in this situation. Check for a plugged fuel filter

or air in the fuel lines as possible causes for these

complaints before replacing fuel system components.

The basis for the correct fuel  injection timing and

the valve mechanism operation is determined  by

the alignment of the timing for the front gear group.

Timing marks (1) through timing marks (6) are aligned

in order to provide the correct relationship between

the piston movement and the valve movement.

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KENR6231

29

Testing and  Adjusting Section

Setting Backlash For Camshaft

And Adjustable Idler Gear

Table 7

Required Tools

Tool

Part Number

Part Description

Qty

Camshaft Alignment

tool

A

27610321

1

21825617

Dial Indicator Group

Finger Clock

1

1

B

-

1.  Remove the front cover. Refer to Disassembly and

Assembly, “Housing (front) - Remove”.

Note: Ensure that No. 1 piston is at the top center

position. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and

Adjusting, “Finding Top Center Position for  No. 1

Piston”.

g00294873

Illustration 29

Typical example

Installation of the adjustable idler assembly

(A) Camshaft Alignment tool

(1) Nuts

(3) Bolt

3.  Refer to Illustration 29 in order to position Tooling

(A). Move Tooling (A) to the left and to the right.

Lightly tighten nuts (1) and bolt (3). Once the nuts

and the bolt are tightened, lightly tap Tooling (A)

with a rubber mallet on the sides. This will ensure

that the tool is properly seated. Tooling (A) should

be free to move in and out without any binding.

g00294872

Illustration 28

Typical example

Loosen stub shaft assembly.

(1) Nuts

(2) Stub shaft

2.  Remove the adjustable idler gear from stub shaft

(2). Stub shaft (2) is held in position with five nuts

(1) and one bolt. Loosen five nuts (1) and loosen

the one bolt.

g00294874

Illustration 30

Typical example

Checking backlash

(B) Indicator assembly

(4) Camshaft gear

(5) Idler gear assembly

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30

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

4.  Install Tooling (B) on the timing gear housing.

Loosely install the idler gear assembly (5) to the

timing gear housing. When idler gear assembly

(5) is held stationary,  the backlash between

the camshaft gear (4) and the idler  gear (5) is

0.216 ± 0.114 mm (0.0085 ± 0.0045 inch).

5.  If necessary, repeat step 2 through step 4 in order

to obtain the proper backlash.

6.  Tighten the nuts and the bolt. Refer to Disassembly

and Assembly, “Gear Group (Front) - Install” for

the correct procedure.

7.  Install the front cover. Refer to Disassembly and

Assembly, “Housing (Front) - Install”.

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KENR6231

31

Testing and  Adjusting Section

Air Inlet  and Exhaust

System

i02581541

Air Inlet and Exhaust System

- Inspect

A general visual inspection should be made to the air

inlet and exhaust system. Make sure that there are

no signs of leaks in the system.

Table 8

Required Tools

Tool

Part Number

Part Description

Qty

Differential Pressure

Gauge

A

-

1

Air Inlet Restriction

There will be a reduction in the performance of the

engine if there is a restriction in the air inlet system.

1.  Inspect the engine air cleaner inlet and ducting

in order to ensure that the  passageway is not

blocked or collapsed.

2.  Inspect the engine air cleaner element. Replace

a dirty engine air cleaner element with a clean

engine air cleaner element.

3.  Check for dirt tracks on the clean  side of the

engine air cleaner element.  If dirt tracks are

observed, contaminants are flowing past  the

engine air cleaner element and/or the seal for the

engine air cleaner element.

Hot  engine  components can  cause  injury  from

burns.  Before  performing  maintenance   on  the

engine, allow the  engine and the  components to

cool.

Making contact with  a running engine can cause

burns from  hot parts and  can cause  injury from

rotating parts.

When working on an engine that is running, avoid

contact with hot parts and rotating parts.

4.  Use Tooling (A) for this test.

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32

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

g01293044

Illustration 31

Air inlet piping

(1) Air Cleaner

(2) Test location

(3) Turbocharger

a.  Connect the vacuum port of the differential

pressure gauge to test  location (2). Test

location (2) may be located anywhere along the

air inlet piping after air cleaner (1) but before

turbocharger (3).

Maximum restriction ........  6.2 kPa (25 in of H O)

2

The air flow through a new engine air cleaner element

must not have a restriction of more than the following

amount:

Maximum restriction ........  3.7 kPa (15 in of H O)

2

b. Leave  the pressure port of the differential

pressure gauge open to the atmosphere.

i02551491

c.  Start the engine. Run the engine at full load.

d. Record  the value.

Turbocharger - Inspect

e.  Compare the result from step  4.d to the

appropriate values that follow.

The air flow through  a used engine air cleaner

may have a  restriction. The air flow through  a

plugged engine air cleaner will be restricted to some

magnitude. In either case, the restriction must not be

more than the following amount:

Hot  engine  components can  cause  injury  from

burns.  Before  performing  maintenance   on  the

engine, allow the  engine and the  components to

cool.

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KENR6231

33

Testing and  Adjusting Section

1.  Inspect the compressor wheel for damage from a

foreign object. If there is damage, determine the

source of the foreign object. As required, clean

the inlet system and repair the  intake system.

Replace the turbocharger. If there is no damage,

go to Step 3.

Personal injury can result from rotating and mov-

ing parts.

Stay clear of all rotating and moving parts.

2.  Clean the compressor wheel and  clean the

compressor housing if you find buildup of foreign

material. If there is no buildup of foreign material,

go to Step 3.

Never attempt  adjustments while the  machine is

moving or the engine is running unless otherwise

specified.

The machine  must be  parked on a  level surface

and the engine stopped.

3.  Turn the rotating assembly by hand. While you

turn the assembly, push the assembly sideways .

The assembly should turn freely. The compressor

wheel should not rub the compressor housing.

Replace the turbocharger if the compressor wheel

rubs the compressor wheel housing. If there is no

rubbing or scraping, go to Step 4.

NOTICE

Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause  rapid wear and  shortened

component life.

4.  Inspect the compressor and the compressor

wheel housing for oil leakage. An oil leak  from

the compressor may deposit oil in the aftercooler.

Drain and clean the aftercooler if you find oil in

the aftercooler.

NOTICE

Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained

during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-

ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to

collect the fluid with suitable containers before  open-

ing any  compartment or  disassembling any  compo-

nent containing fluids.

a.  Check the oil level in the crankcase. If the oil

level is too high, adjust the oil level.

b. Inspect the air cleaner element for restriction. If

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and

mandates.

restriction is found, correct the problem.

c.  Inspect the engine crankcase breather. Clean

the engine crankcase breather or  replace

the engine crankcase breather if the engine

crankcase breather is plugged.

Before you begin inspection of the  turbocharger,

be sure that the  inlet air restriction is within the

specifications for your engine.  Be sure that the

exhaust system restriction is within the specifications

for your engine. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing

and Adjusting, “Air Inlet  and Exhaust System -

Inspect”.

d. Remove the oil drain line for the turbocharger.

Inspect the drain opening. Inspect the oil drain

line. Inspect the area between the bearings of

the rotating assembly shaft. Look for oil sludge.

Inspect the oil drain hole for oil sludge. Inspect

the oil drain line for  oil sludge in the drain

line. If necessary, clean the rotating assembly

shaft. If necessary, clean the oil drain hole. If

necessary, clean the oil drain line.

The condition of the turbocharger will have definite

effects on engine performance. Use the following

inspections and procedures  to determine the

condition of the turbocharger.

•  Inspection of the Compressor and the Compressor

Housing

e.  If Steps 4.a through 4.d did not reveal  the

source of the oil leakage, the turbocharger has

internal damage. Replace the turbocharger.

•  Inspection of the Turbine Wheel and the Turbine

Housing

Inspection of the Turbine Wheel

and the Turbine Housing

Inspection of the Compressor and

the Compressor Housing

Remove the air piping from the turbine housing.

Remove air piping from the compressor inlet.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

34

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

a.  Remove the oil drain line for the turbocharger.

Inspect the drain opening. Inspect the area

between the bearings of the rotating assembly

shaft. Look for oil sludge. Inspect the oil drain

hole for oil sludge. Inspect the oil  drain line

for oil sludge. If necessary, clean the rotating

assembly shaft. If necessary, clean the drain

opening. If necessary, clean the drain line.

b. If crankcase pressure is high, or if the oil drain

is restricted, pressure in the center housing

may be greater than the pressure of turbine

housing (1). Oil flow may be forced in the wrong

direction and the oil may not drain. Check the

crankcase pressure and correct any problems.

c.  If the oil drain line is damaged, replace the oil

drain line.

d. Check the routing of the oil drain line. Eliminate

any sharp restrictive bends. Make sure that

the oil drain line is not too close to the engine

exhaust manifold.

g00763164

Illustration 32

Typical example

(1) Turbine Housing

(2) Turbine Wheel

(3) Turbocharger

e.  If Steps 4.a through 4.d did not reveal  the

source of the oil leakage, turbocharger (3) has

internal damage. Replace turbocharger (3).

1.  Inspect the turbine for damage by a foreign object.

If there is damage, determine the source of the

foreign object. Replace turbocharger (3). If there

is no damage, go to Step 2.

i02571444

Exhaust Temperature - Test

2.  Inspect turbine wheel (2) for buildup of carbon and

other foreign material. Inspect turbine housing (1)

for buildup of carbon and foreign material. Clean

turbine wheel (2) and clean turbine housing (1) if

you find buildup of carbon or foreign material. If

there is no buildup of carbon or foreign material,

go to Step 3.

Table 9

Required Tools

Tool

Part Number

Part Description

Qty

A

-

Infrared Thermometer

1

3.  Turn the rotating assembly by hand. While you

turn the assembly, push the assembly sideways.

The assembly should turn freely. Turbine wheel (2)

should not rub turbine wheel housing (1). Replace

turbocharger (3) if turbine wheel (2) rubs turbine

housing (1). If there is no rubbing or scraping, go

to Step 4.

When the engine runs, the temperature of an exhaust

manifold port can indicate the  condition of a fuel

injection nozzle.

A low temperature indicates that no fuel is flowing to

the cylinder. An inoperative fuel injection nozzle or

a problem with the fuel injection pump could cause

this low temperature.

4.  Inspect the turbine and turbine housing (1) for oil

leakage. Inspect the turbine and turbine housing

(1)for oil coking. Some oil coking may be cleaned.

Heavy oil coking may require  replacement of

the turbocharger. If the oil is  coming from the

turbocharger center housing go  to Step 4.a.

Otherwise go to “Inspection of the Wastegate”.

A very high temperature can indicate that too much

fuel is flowing to  the cylinder. A malfunctioning

fuel injection nozzle could  cause this very high

temperature.

Use the Tooling (A) to check exhaust temperature.

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KENR6231

35

Testing and  Adjusting Section

i02571687

Engine Crankcase Pressure

This engine uses high  voltage to control the fuel

injectors.

(Blowby) - Test

Disconnect electronic fuel  injector enable circuit

connector to prevent personal injury.

Table 10

Required Tools

Part

Do not come in  contact with the fuel injector ter-

minals while the engine is running.

Tool

Number

Part Name

Quantity

Note: Valve lash is measured between the rocker

arm and the valve bridge. All measurements  and

adjustments must be made with the engine stopped

and the valves fully closed.

A

-

Pressure Gauge

1

Damaged pistons or rings  can cause too much

pressure in the crankcase. This condition will cause

the engine to run rough. There will be more than the

normal amount of fumes (blowby) rising  from the

crankcase breather. The breather can then become

restricted in a very short time, causing oil leakage

at gaskets and seals that would not normally have

leakage. Blowby can also be caused by worn valve

guides or by a failed turbocharger seal.

Valve Lash Check

An adjustment is  NOT NECESSARY if  the

measurement of the valve lash is in the acceptable

range in Table 11.

Table 11

Install Tooling (A) to the most convenient location on

the output tube for the crankcase  breather or the

breather hose. The pressure for the engine blowby

Inlet Valves

Exhaust Valves

Valve Lash

(Stopped

Engine)

0.38 ± 0.08 mm

(0.015 ± 0.003

inch)

0.76 ± 0.08  mm

(0.030 ± 0.003 inch)

should be 0.25 kPa (1 inch of H O).

2

TC

Note: Do not use the data alone to determine if the

engine should be overhauled. Other indicators such

as high oil consumption, low power, hard starting,

and excessive fuel consumption must be considered.

Compression

Stroke

1-2-4

3-5-6

1-3-5

2-4-6

TC Exhaust

Stroke

(1)

After a new engine is  used for a short time, the

blowby can decrease as the rings are seated. New

engines should be checked for blowby  during all

maintenance checks. As the piston rings and cylinder

walls wear, the blowby will gradually increase.

Firing Order

1-5-3-6-2-4

(2)

(1)  360° from TC compression stroke

(2)  The No. 1 cylinder is at the front of the engine.

If the measurement is not  within this range, an

adjustment is necessary. Refer  to “Valve Lash

Adjustment” for the proper procedure.

The blowby on a worn engine may be two times or

more than the blowby of  a new engine and may

indicate the need for an overhaul.

i02553372

Engine Valve  Lash  -

Inspect/Adjust

To prevent possible injury, do  not use the starter

to turn the flywheel.

Hot engine  components can cause  burns. Allow

additional time for the engine to cool before mea-

suring valve clearance.

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36

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

Valve Lash Adjustment

Note: If necessary, adjust the electronic unit injectors

on cylinders 3, 5 and 6. Refer to Systems Operation,

Testing and Adjusting, “Electronic Unit  Injector -

Adjust” for the correct procedure.

3.  Remove the timing pin. Turn the flywheel by 360

degrees in the direction of engine rotation. This

will put the No. 6 piston at the top center position

on the compression stroke. Install the timing pin.

Table 13

Compression

Stroke for No.6

Piston

Inlet Valves

Exhaust Valves

0.38 ± 0.08 mm

(0.015 ± 0.003

inch)

0.76 ± 0.08 mm

(0.030 ± 0.003

inch)

Valve Lash

Cylinders

g00935559

Illustration 33

Cylinder and valve location

(A) Exhaust valves

(B) Inlet valves

3-5-6

2-4-6

4.  Adjust the valve lash according to Table 13.

Use the following procedure to adjust the valve lash:

a.  Lightly tap the rocker arm with a soft mallet.

This will ensure that  the lifter roller seats

against the camshaft’s base circle.

1.  Put the No. 1 piston at the top center  position

on the compression stroke. Refer to  Systems

Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Finding Top

Center Position for No. 1 Piston”.

b. Loosen the adjustment locknut.

Table 12

c.  Place the appropriate feeler gauge between

rocker arm and the valve bridge. Then, turn

the adjustment screw in a clockwise direction.

Slide the feeler gauge between the rocker arm

and the valve bridge. Continue turning  the

adjustment screw until a slight drag is felt on

the feeler gauge. Remove the feeler gauge.

Compression

Stroke for No.

1 Piston

Inlet Valves

Exhaust Valves

0.38 ± 0.08 mm

(0.015 ± 0.003

inch)

0.76 ± 0.08 mm

(0.030 ± 0.003

inch)

Valve Lash

Cylinders

1-2-4

1-3-5

d. Tighten the  adjustment locknut to a torque

of 30 ± 7  N·m (22 ± 5 lb ft). Do  not allow

the adjustment screw to turn while  you are

tightening the adjustment locknut. Recheck

the valve lash after tightening the adjustment

locknut.

2.  Adjust the valve lash according to Table 12.

a.  Lightly tap the rocker arm with a soft mallet.

This will ensure that  the lifter roller seats

against the camshaft’s base circle.

5.  Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel after all

adjustments to the valve lash have been made.

Reinstall the timing cover.

b. Loosen the adjustment locknut.

c.  Place the appropriate feeler gauge between

rocker arm and the valve bridge. Then, turn

the adjustment screw in a clockwise direction.

Slide the feeler gauge between the rocker arm

and the valve bridge. Continue turning  the

adjustment screw until a slight drag is felt on

the feeler gauge. Remove the feeler gauge.

Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,

“Electronic Unit Injector - Adjust”.

d. Tighten  the adjustment locknut to a torque

of 30 ± 7  N·m (22 ± 5 lb ft).  Do not allow

the adjustment screw to turn while  you are

tightening the adjustment locknut. Recheck

the valve lash after tightening the adjustment

locknut.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

KENR6231

37

Testing and  Adjusting Section

Lubrication System

i02571670

Engine Oil Pressure - Test

The engine  oil pressure may  be checked

electronically by using the electronic service tool.

The engine oil pressure can be measured with the

electronic service tool. Refer to Troubleshooting for

information on the use of the electronic service tool.

Measuring Engine Oil Pressure

Work carefully around an  engine that is running.

Engine parts that are hot, or parts that are moving,

can cause personal injury.

NOTICE

Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause  rapid wear and  shortened

component life.

g00977330

Illustration 34

Oil gallery plug

(1) Plug

NOTICE

1.  Install Tool (A) into the oil gallery plugs (1).

Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained

during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-

ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to

collect the fluid with suitable containers before  open-

ing any  compartment or  disassembling any  compo-

nent containing fluids.

Note: Engine oil pressure to the camshaft and main

bearings should be checked on each  side of the

cylinder block at oil gallery plugs (1).

2.  Start the engine. Refer  to Operation and

Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities  and

Recommendations” for the recommendations of

engine oil.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and

mandates.

Table 14

3.  Record the value of the engine oil pressure when

the engine is at operating temperature 100  °C

(212 °F).

Required Tools

Part

Tool

Number

Part Name

Quantity

The minimum engine oil pressure  should be

approximately 275 to 414 kPa (40 to 59 psi).

A

-

Pressure Gauge

1

4.  Compare the recorded engine oil pressure with

the oil pressure indicators on the instrument panel

and the engine oil pressure that is displayed on

the electronic service tool.

Tool (A) measures the oil pressure in the system.

5.  An engine oil pressure indicator that has a defect

or an engine oil pressure sensor that has a defect

can give a false indication of a low oil pressure or

a high oil pressure. If there is a notable difference

between the engine oil pressure readings make

necessary repairs.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

38

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

6.  If low engine oil pressure is determined, refer to

2.  Engine oil that is contaminated with fuel or coolant

will cause low engine oil pressure. High engine

oil level in the crankcase can  be an indication

of contamination. Determine the  reason for

contamination of the engine oil and  make the

necessary repairs. Replace the engine oil with the

approved grade of engine oil. Refer to Operation

and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Oil” for  the

recommendations of engine oil.

“Reasons for Low Engine Oil Pressure”.

7.  If high engine oil pressure is determined, refer to

“Reason for High Engine Oil Pressure”.

Reasons for  Low Engine Oil

Pressure

NOTICE

NOTICE

Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Perkins oil filters are  manufactured to Perkins speci-

fications. Use of an oil filter that is not recommended

by Perkins could  result in severe damage to  the en-

gine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger

waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine

lubricating system. Only use  oil filters recommended

by Perkins.

Contaminants may cause  rapid wear and  shortened

component life.

NOTICE

Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained

during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-

ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to

collect the fluid with suitable containers before  open-

ing any  compartment or  disassembling any  compo-

nent containing fluids.

3.  If the engine oil bypass valves are held in  the

open position, a reduction in the oil pressure can

be the result. This may be due to  debris in the

engine oil. If the engine oil  bypass valves are

stuck in the open position, remove each engine

oil bypass valve and clean each bypass  valve

in order to correct this problem. You  must also

clean each bypass valve bore. Install new engine

oil filters. New engine oil filters will prevent more

debris from causing this problem. For information

on the repair of the engine oil bypass valves, refer

to Disassembly and Assembly, “Engine Oil Filter

Base - Disassemble”.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and

mandates.

•  Engine oil level is low. Refer to Step 1.

•  Engine oil is contaminated. Refer to Step 2.

•  The engine oil bypass valves are open. Refer to

Step 3.

4.  An oil line or an oil passage that is open, broken,

or disconnected will cause low engine oil pressure.

An open lubrication system could be caused by

a piston cooling jet that is missing or damaged.

Determine the reason for an open  lubrication

system of the engine and make the  necessary

repairs.

•  The engine lubrication system is open. Refer to

Step 4.

•  The oil pickup tube has a leak or a restricted inlet

screen. Refer to Step 5.

•  The engine oil pump is faulty. Refer to Step 6.

Note: The piston cooling jets direct engine oil toward

the bottom of the piston in order to cool the piston.

This also provides lubrication for  the piston pin.

Breakage, a restriction or incorrect installation of the

piston cooling jets will cause seizure of the piston.

•  Engine Bearings have excessive clearance. Refer

to Step 7.

1.  Check the engine oil level in the crankcase. The

oil level can possibly be too far below the oil pump

supply tube. This will cause the oil pump not to

have the ability to supply enough lubrication to the

engine components. If the engine oil level is low

add engine oil in order to obtain the correct engine

oil level. Refer to Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Engine Oil” for the recommendations of

engine oil.

5.  The inlet screen of the oil pickup tube  for the

engine oil pump can  have a restriction. This

restriction will cause cavitation and  a loss of

engine oil pressure. Check the inlet screen  on

the oil pickup tube and remove any material that

may be restricting engine oil flow. Low engine oil

pressure may also be the result of the oil pickup

tube that is drawing in air. Check the joints of the

oil pickup tube for cracks or a damaged  O-ring

seal. Remove the engine oil pan in order to gain

access to the oil pickup tube and the oil screen.

Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Engine Oil

Pan - Remove and Install” for more information.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

KENR6231

39

Testing and  Adjusting Section

6.  Check the following problems that may occur to

the engine oil pump.

NOTICE

Perkins oil filters are  manufactured to Perkins speci-

fications. Use of an oil filter that is not recomme, nded

by Perkins could  result in severe damage to  the en-

gine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger

waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine

lubricating system. Only use  oil filters recommended

by Perkins.

a.  Air leakage in the supply side of the oil pump

will also cause  cavitation and loss of oil

pressure. Check the supply side of the oil pump

and make necessary repairs. For information

on the repair of the engine oil pump, refer to

Disassembly and Assembly, “Engine Oil Pump

- Remove”.

b. Oil pump gears  that have too much wear will

cause a reduction in oil pressure. Repair the

engine oil pump. For information on the repair

of the engine oil pump, refer to Disassembly

and Assembly, “Engine Oil Pump - Remove”.

i02553373

Excessive Bearing Wear  -

Inspect

7.  Excessive clearance at engine bearings will

cause low engine  oil pressure. Check the

engine components that have excessive bearing

clearance and make the necessary repairs.

When some components of the engine show bearing

wear in a short time, the cause can be a restriction in

an oil passage.

Reason for  High Engine Oil

Pressure

An engine oil pressure indicator may show that there

is enough oil pressure, but a  component is worn

due to a lack of lubrication. In such a case, look at

the passage for the oil supply  to the component.

A restriction in an oil supply passage will not allow

enough lubrication to reach a component. This will

result in early wear.

NOTICE

Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause  rapid wear and  shortened

component life.

i02553374

Excessive Engine  Oil

NOTICE

Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained

during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-

ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to

collect the fluid with suitable containers before  open-

ing any  compartment or  disassembling any  compo-

nent containing fluids.

Consumption - Inspect

Engine Oil Leaks on the Outside of

the Engine

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and

mandates.

Check for leakage at the seals at each  end of the

crankshaft. Look for leakage at the gasket for  the

engine oil pan and all lubrication system connections.

Look for any engine oil that may  be leaking from

the crankcase breather. This can  be caused by

combustion gas leakage around the pistons. A dirty

crankcase breather will cause high pressure in the

crankcase. A dirty crankcase breather will cause the

gaskets and the seals to leak.

Engine oil pressure will be  high if the engine oil

bypass valves become stuck in the closed position

and the engine oil flow is restricted. Foreign matter

in the engine oil system could be the cause for the

restriction of the oil flow and the movement of  the

engine oil bypass valves. If the engine oil  bypass

valves are stuck in the  closed position, remove

each bypass valve and clean each bypass valve in

order to correct this problem. You must also clean

each bypass valve bore.  Install new engine oil

filters. New engine oil filters will prevent more debris

from causing this problem. For information on the

repair of the engine oil filter bypass valve, refer to

Disassembly and Assembly, “Engine Oil Filter Base -

Disassemble”.

Engine Oil  Leaks into  the

Combustion Area of the Cylinders

Engine oil that is leaking into the combustion area of

the cylinders can be the cause of blue smoke. There

are several possible ways for engine oil to leak into

the combustion area of the cylinders:

•  Leaks between worn valve guides and valve stems

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

40

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

•  Worn components or damaged  components

(pistons, piston rings, or dirty return holes for the

engine oil)

•  Incorrect installation of the compression ring and/or

the intermediate ring

•  Leaks past the seal rings in the turbocharger shaft

•  Overfilling of the crankcase

•  Wrong dipstick or guide tube

Excessive consumption of engine  oil can also

result if engine oil with the wrong viscosity is used.

Engine oil with a thin viscosity can be caused by fuel

leakage into the crankcase or by increased engine

temperature.

i02553375

Increased Engine  Oil

Temperature - Inspect

If the oil temperature  is high, then check for  a

restriction in the oil passages of  the oil cooler. A

restriction in the oil  cooler will not cause low oil

pressure in the engine.

Determine if the oil cooler bypass valve is held in the

open position. This condition will allow the oil to pass

through the valve instead of the oil cooler. The  oil

temperature will increase.

Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill

Capacities” for the correct lubricating oil.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

KENR6231

41

Testing and  Adjusting Section

Cooling System

5.  Check the sending unit. In some conditions, the

temperature sensor in the engine sends signals

to a sending unit. The sending unit converts these

signals to an electrical impulse which is used by a

mounted gauge. If the sending unit malfunctions,

the gauge can show an incorrect reading. Also if

the electric wire breaks or if the electric wire shorts

out, the gauge can show an incorrect reading.

i02553376

Cooling System - Check

(Overheating)

6.  Check the radiator.

Above normal coolant temperatures can be caused

by many conditions. Use the following procedure

to determine the cause of  above normal coolant

temperatures:

a.  Check the radiator for a restriction to coolant

flow. Check the radiator for  debris, dirt, or

deposits on the inside of the  radiator core.

Debris, dirt, or deposits will restrict the flow of

coolant through the radiator.

b. Check for debris or damage between the  fins

of the radiator core. Debris between the fins

of the radiator core restricts air flow through

the radiator core. Refer to Systems Operation,

Testing and Adjusting, “Cooling  System -

Inspect”.

Personal injury can result from escaping fluid un-

der pressure.

If a pressure indication is shown on the indicator,

push the release valve in order to relieve pressure

before removing any hose from the radiator.

c.  Ensure that the radiator size is adequate for

the application. An undersized radiator does

not have enough area for the effective release

of heat. This may cause  the engine to run

at a temperature that is higher than normal.

The normal temperature is dependent on the

ambient temperature.

1.  Check the coolant level in the cooling system.

Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Cooling System Coolant Level - Check”. If the

coolant level is too low, air will get into the cooling

system. Air in the cooling system  will cause a

reduction in coolant flow  and bubbles in the

coolant. Air bubbles will keep coolant away from

the engine parts, which will prevent the transfer of

heat to the coolant. Low coolant level is caused by

leaks or incorrectly filling the radiator.

7.  Check the filler cap. A pressure  drop in the

radiator can cause the boiling point to be lower.

This can cause the cooling system to boil. Refer

to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,

“Cooling System - Test”.

2.  Check the mixture of antifreeze and water. Refer

to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid

Recommendations”. If the coolant  mixture is

incorrect, drain the system. Put the correct mixture

of water, antifreeze and coolant conditioner in the

cooling system.

8.  Check the fan and/or the fan shroud.

a.  The fan must be large enough to  send air

through most of the area of the radiator core.

Ensure that the size of the fan and the position

of the fan are adequate for the application.

3.  Check for air in the cooling system. Air can enter

the cooling system in different ways. The most

common causes of air in  the cooling system

are not filling the cooling system correctly  and

combustion gas leakage into the cooling system.

Combustion gas can get into the system through

inside cracks, a damaged cylinder head,  or a

damaged cylinder head gasket. Air in the cooling

system causes a reduction in coolant flow and

bubbles in the coolant. Air bubbles keep coolant

away from the engine parts, which prevents the

transfer of heat to the coolant.

b. The fan  shroud must be the proper size and

the fan shroud must be positioned correctly.

Ensure that the size of the fan shroud and the

position of the fan shroud are adequate for the

application.

9.  If the fan is belt driven, check for loose drive belts.

A loose fan drive belt will cause a reduction in the

air flow across the radiator. Check the fan drive

belt for proper belt tension. Adjust the tension of

the fan drive belt, if necessary. Refer to Systems

Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Belt Tension

Chart”.

4.  Check the water temperature gauge. A water

temperature gauge which does not work correctly

will not show the  correct temperature. Refer

to Systems Operation, Testing and  Adjusting,

“Cooling System - Inspect”.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

42

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

10. Check the cooling system hoses and clamps.

Damaged hoses with leaks can normally be seen.

Hoses that have no visual leaks can soften during

operation. The soft areas of the hose can become

kinked or crushed during operation. These areas

of the hose can cause a restriction in the coolant

flow. Hoses become soft  and/or get cracks

after a period of time. The inside of a hose  can

deteriorate, and the loose particles of the hose

can cause a restriction of the coolant flow. Refer

to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Hoses

and Clamps - Inspect/Replace”.

14. Check the water temperature regulator. A water

temperature regulator that does not  open, or

a water temperature regulator that only opens

part of the way can cause overheating. Refer to

Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Water

Temperature Regulator - Test”.

15. Check the water pump. A water pump with a

damaged impeller does not pump enough coolant

for correct engine cooling. Remove  the water

pump and check for damage to the impeller. Refer

to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,

“Water Pump - Test”.

11. Check for a restriction in the air inlet system.

A restriction of the air  that is coming into the

engine can cause high cylinder temperatures.

High cylinder temperatures cause higher than

normal temperatures in the cooling system. Refer

to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Air

Inlet and Exhaust System - Inspect”.

16. Check the air  flow through the  engine

compartment. The air flow through the radiator

comes out of the engine compartment. Ensure

that the filters, air conditioner, and similar items

are not installed in a way that prevents the free

flow of air through the engine compartment.

a.  If the measured restriction is higher than the

maximum permissible restriction, remove the

foreign material from the engine air cleaner

element or install a new engine  air cleaner

element. Refer to Operation and Maintenance

Manual, “Engine Air  Cleaner Element -

Clean/Replace”.

17. Check the aftercooler. A restriction of air flow

through the air to air aftercooler (if equipped) can

cause overheating. Check for debris or deposits

which would prevent the free flow of air through

the aftercooler.

18. Consider high outside temperatures. When

outside temperatures are too high for the rating

of the cooling system, there is not enough  of a

temperature difference between the outside air

and coolant temperatures.

b. Check for  a restriction in the air inlet system

again.

c.  If the measured restriction is still higher than

the maximum permissible restriction, check the

air inlet piping for a restriction.

19. Consider high altitude operation. The cooling

capacity of the cooling system goes  down as

the engine is operated  at higher altitudes. A

pressurized cooling system that is large enough to

keep the coolant from boiling must be used.

12. Check for a restriction in the exhaust system.

A restriction of the air that is coming  out of the

engine can cause high cylinder temperatures.

a.  Make a visual inspection of the exhaust system.

Check for damage to exhaust piping or for a

damaged muffler. If no damage is found, check

the exhaust system for a restriction. Refer to

Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Air

Inlet and Exhaust System - Inspect”.

i02553378

Cooling System - Inspect

Cooling systems that are not regularly inspected are

the cause for increased engine temperatures. Make

a visual inspection of the cooling system before any

tests are performed.

b. If the  measured restriction is higher than the

maximum permissible restriction, there is a

restriction in the exhaust system. Repair the

exhaust system, as required.

13. Check the shunt line, if the  shunt system is

used. The shunt line must be submerged in the

expansion tank. A restriction of the  shunt line

from the radiator top tank to  the engine water

pump inlet will cause a reduction in water pump

efficiency. A reduction in water pump efficiency

will result in low coolant flow and overheating.

Personal injury can result from escaping fluid un-

der pressure.

If a pressure indication is shown on the indicator,

push the release valve in order to relieve pressure

before removing any hose from the radiator.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

KENR6231

43

Testing and  Adjusting Section

1.  Check the coolant level in the cooling system.

Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,

“Cooling System Coolant Level - Check”.

2.  Check the quality of the coolant. The  coolant

should have the following properties:

•  Color that is similar to new coolant

•  Odor that is similar to new coolant

•  Free from dirt and debris

If the coolant does not have  these properties,

drain the system and flush  the system. Refill

the cooling system with the correct  mixture of

water, antifreeze, and coolant conditioner. Refer

to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid

Recommendations”.

g00921815

Illustration 35

Boiling point of water

Remember that temperature and pressure  work

together. When a diagnosis is made  of a cooling

system problem, temperature and pressure must be

checked. Cooling system pressure will have an effect

on the cooling system temperature. For an example,

refer to Illustration 35. This will show the  effect of

pressure on the boiling point (steam) of water. This

will also show the effect of height above sea level.

3.  Look for leaks in the system.

Note: A small amount of  coolant leakage across

the surface of the water pump seals is normal. This

leakage is required in order to provide lubrication for

this type of seal. A hole is provided in the water pump

housing in order to allow this coolant/seal lubricant

to drain from the pump housing. Intermittent leakage

of small amounts of coolant from this hole is not an

indication of water pump seal failure.

Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam

and alkali.

4.  Ensure that the air flow through the radiator does

not have a restriction. Look for  bent core fins

between the folded cores of the radiator. Also, look

for debris between the folded cores of the radiator.

At operating  temperature, engine  coolant is  hot

and  under  pressure. The  radiator  and  all  lines

to heaters  or  the engine  contain hot  coolant or

steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

5.  Inspect the drive belts for the fan.

6.  Check for damage to the fan blades.

Remove filler cap slowly to  relieve pressure only

when engine is  stopped and radiator cap  is cool

enough to touch with your bare hand.

7.  Look for air or combustion gas in  the cooling

system.

Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali. Avoid

contact with skin and eyes.

8.  Inspect the filler cap, and check the surface that

seals the filler cap. This surface must be clean.

The coolant level must be to the correct level in order

to check the coolant system. The engine must  be

cold and the engine must not be running.

i02553379

Cooling System - Test

After the engine is cool, loosen  the pressure cap

in order to relieve the pressure out  of the cooling

system. Then remove the pressure cap.

This engine has a pressure type cooling system. A

pressure type cooling system has two advantages.

The cooling system can be operated in a safe manner

at a temperature higher than the normal boiling point

(steam) of water.

The level of the coolant should  not be more than

13 mm (0.5 inch) from the bottom of the filler pipe. If

the cooling system is equipped with a sight glass,

the coolant should be to the proper level in the sight

glass.

This type of system prevents cavitation in the water

pump. Cavitation is the  forming of low pressure

bubbles in liquids that are caused by  mechanical

forces. It is difficult to create a pocket of air  in this

type of cooling system.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

44

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

Checking the Filler Cap

•  Seal

Table 15

•  Surface for seal

Required Tools

Remove any deposits that are found on  these

items, and remove any material that is found on

these items.

Tool

Part Number

Part Description

Qty

A

GE50031

Pressurizing Pump

1

2.  Install the filler cap onto Tooling (A).

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system

can be a damaged seal on the radiator filler cap.

3.  Look at the gauge for the exact pressure that

opens the filler cap.

4.  Compare the gauge reading with the opening

pressure that is listed on the filler cap.

5.  If the filler cap is damaged, replace the filler cap.

Testing The Radiator And Cooling

System For Leaks

Table 16

Required Tools

Tool

Part Number

Part Description

Qty

g01096114

Illustration 36

Typical schematic of filler cap

A

GE50031

Pressurizing Pump

1

(1) Sealing surface of both filler cap and radiator

Use the following procedure in order to check the

cooling system for leaks:

Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam

and alkali.

Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam

and alkali.

At operating  temperature, engine  coolant  is hot

and  under  pressure. The  radiator  and  all  lines

to heaters  or  the engine  contain hot  coolant or

steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

At operating  temperature, engine  coolant is  hot

and  under  pressure. The  radiator  and  all  lines

to heaters  or  the engine  contain hot  coolant or

steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

Remove filler cap slowly to  relieve pressure only

when engine is  stopped and radiator cap  is cool

enough to touch with your bare hand.

Remove filler cap slowly to  relieve pressure only

when engine is  stopped and radiator cap  is cool

enough to touch with your bare hand.

Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali. Avoid

contact with skin and eyes.

Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali. Avoid

contact with skin and eyes.

To check for the amount of pressure that opens the

filler cap, use the following procedure:

1.  After the engine is cool, loosen the filler cap slowly

and allow pressure out of the  cooling system.

Then remove the filler cap from the radiator.

1.  After the engine cools, carefully loosen the filler

cap. Slowly release the pressure from the cooling

system. Then, remove the filler cap.

2.  Ensure that the coolant level is above the top of

the radiator core.

Carefully inspect the filler  cap. Look for any

damage to the seals and to the sealing surface.

Inspect the following components for any foreign

substances:

3.  Install Tooling (A) onto the radiator.

4.  Take the pressure reading on the gauge to 20 kPa

(3 psi) more than the pressure on the filler cap.

•  Filler cap

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

KENR6231

45

Testing and  Adjusting Section

5.  Check the radiator for leakage on the outside.

Coolant temperature can also be read on the display

screens of the Electronic Service Tool.

6.  Check all connection points for leakage, and

check the hoses for leakage.

The cooling system does not have leakage only if the

following conditions exist:.

•  You do not observe any outside leakage.

•  The reading remains steady after five minutes.

The inside of the cooling system has leakage only if

the following conditions exist:

•  The reading on the gauge goes down.

•  You do NOT observe any outside leakage.

Make any repairs, as required.

Test For The Water Temperature

Gauge

g01096115

Illustration 37

Typical example

(1) Water manifold assembly

Table 17

Required Tools

Tool

Part Number

Part Description

Qty

Remove a plug from water manifold assembly (1).

Install Tooling (A) in the open port:

A

-

Thermometer

1

A temperature indicator of known accuracy can also

be used to make this check.

Start the engine. Run the engine until the temperature

reaches the desired range according  to the test

thermometer. If necessary, place a cover over part of

the radiator in order to cause a restriction of the air

flow. The reading on the water temperature indicator

should agree with the test thermometer within the

tolerance range of the water temperature indicator.

Personal injury can result from escaping fluid un-

der pressure.

If a pressure indication is shown on the indicator,

push the release valve in order to relieve pressure

before removing any hose from the radiator.

i02553380

Water Temperature Regulator

- Test

Making contact with  a running engine can cause

burns from  hot parts and  can cause  injury from

rotating parts.

When working on an engine that is running, avoid

contact with hot parts and rotating parts.

Check the accuracy  of the water temperature

indicator or water temperature sensor if  you find

either of the following conditions:

Personal injury can result from escaping fluid un-

der pressure.

If a pressure indication is shown on the indicator,

push the release valve in order to relieve pressure

before removing any hose from the radiator.

•  The engine runs at a temperature that is too hot,

but a normal temperature is indicated. A loss of

coolant is found.

•  The engine runs at a normal temperature, but a

hot temperature is indicated. No loss of coolant

is found.

1.  Remove the water temperature regulator from the

engine.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

46

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

2.  Heat water in a suitable  container until the

temperature is 98 °C (208 °F).

Making contact with  a running engine can cause

burns from  hot parts and  can cause  injury from

rotating parts.

3.  Hang the water temperature regulator in  the

container of water.  The water temperature

regulator must be below the surface of the water

and away from the sides and the bottom of  the

container.

When working on an engine that is running, avoid

contact with hot parts and rotating parts.

4.  Keep the water at the correct temperature for ten

minutes.

Perform the following procedure in order to determine

if the water pump is operating correctly:

5.  After ten minutes, remove the water temperature

regulator. Ensure that the water  temperature

regulator is open.

1.  Remove the plug from port (2).

2.  Install Tooling (A) in port (2).

Replace the water temperature regulator if the

water temperature regulator is not open at  the

specified temperature. Refer to Specifications,

“Water Temperature Regulator”.

3.  Start the engine. Run the engine until the coolant

is at operating temperature.

4.  Note the water pump pressure. The water pump

pressure should be 100 to 125 kPa (15 to 18 psi).

i02553381

Water Pump - Test

Table 18

Required Tools

Tool

Part Number

Part Description

Qty

A

GE50033

Pressure Gauge

1

g01033819

Illustration 38

Typical example

(1) Water outlet

(2) Port

(3) Temperature regulator housing

(4) Water pump

(5) Port

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

KENR6231

47

Testing and  Adjusting Section

Basic Engine

Connecting rod bearings are available with smaller

inside diameters than the original size  bearings.

These bearings are for crankshafts that have been

ground.

i02553382

Piston Ring Groove - Inspect

If necessary, replace the connecting rod bearings.

Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Connecting

Rod Bearings - Remove” and  Disassembly and

Assembly, “Connecting Rod Bearings - Install” for the

correct procedure.

Inspect the Piston and the Piston

Rings

i02553396

1.  Check the piston for wear and other damage.

Main Bearings - Inspect

2.  Check that the piston rings are free to move in the

grooves and that the rings are not broken.

Main bearings are available with  smaller inside

diameters than the original size  bearings. These

bearings are for crankshafts that have been ground.

Inspect the Clearance of the Piston

Ring

If necessary, replace the  main bearings. Refer

to Disassembly and Assembly, “Crankshaft Main

Bearings - Remove and  Install” for the correct

procedure.

1.  Remove the piston rings and clean the grooves

and the piston rings.

2.  Fit new piston rings in the piston grooves.

3.  Check the clearance for the piston ring by placing

a suitable feeler gauge between the piston groove

and the top of piston ring. Refer to Specifications,

“Piston and Rings” for the dimensions.

i02571419

Cylinder Block - Inspect

Inspect the Piston Ring End Gap

1.  Clean all of the coolant passages and  the oil

passages.

1.  Clean all carbon from the top of the cylinder bores.

2.  Check the cylinder block for cracks and damage.

2.  Place each piston ring in the cylinder bore just

below the cylinder ring ridge.

3.  The top deck of the cylinder block must not be

machined. This will affect the depth of the cylinder

liner flange and the  piston height above the

cylinder block.

3.  Use a suitable feeler gauge to measure piston

ring end gap. Refer to Specifications, “Piston and

Rings” for the dimensions.

4.  Check the front camshaft bearing for wear. Refer

to Specifications, “Camshaft Bearings” for the

correct specification of the camshaft bearing. If a

new bearing is needed, use a suitable adapter to

press the bearing out of the bore. Ensure that the

oil hole in the new bearing faces the front of the

block. The oil hole in the bearing must be aligned

with the oil hole in the cylinder block. The bearing

must be aligned with the face of the recess.

Note: The coil spring must be removed from the oil

control ring before the gap of the oil control ring is

measured.

i02553391

Connecting Rod Bearings -

Inspect

The connecting rod bearings fit tightly in the bore in

the rod. If the bearing joints are worn, check the bore

size. This can be an indication of wear because of

a loose fit.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

48

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

i02553404

Cylinder Liner Projection  -

Inspect

Table 19

Required Tools

Tool

A

Part Number

GE50005

Part Description

Clamp bolt

Qty

6

B

GE50006

Clamp washer

Fibre washer

6

C

GE50007

6

Cylinder  liner

projection tool

D

GE50002

1

Note: The projection of the cylinder liner is measured

from the top of the cylinder  liner to the top of the

spacer plate.

g01096458

Illustration 39

Liner Projection Components

(1) Bolt

(2) Washer

(3) Washer

(4) Spacer plate

(5) Cylinder liner

(6) Block

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

KENR6231

49

Testing and  Adjusting Section

g00443044

Illustration 40

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

50

KENR6231

Testing and  Adjusting Section

1.  Ensure that the top face of the cylinder block (6)

is clean. Install a new spacer plate gasket and a

clean spacer plate.

Do not exceed the  maximum liner projection of

0.152 mm (0.006 inch). The excessive liner projection

will contribute to cracking of the liner flange.

2.  Install the cylinder liners to the cylinder block

without seals or bands. Ensure that the cylinder

liners are installed to the original positions.

When the liner projection is correct, put a temporary

mark on the liner and the spacer plate. Set the liners

aside.

3.  Install Tooling (B) and Tooling (C) to Tooling (A).

Note: Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Cylinder

Liner - Install”  for the correct final installation

procedure for the cylinder liners.

Refer to illustration 39.

4.  Install Tooling (A) around the  liner. Refer to

illustration 39.

i02553516

Flywheel - Inspect

5.  Tighten the bolts (6) to a torque of 95 N·m (70 lb ft).

6.  Use Tooling (D) to measure the cylinder liner

projection at "A", "B",  "C" and "D". Refer to

illustration 40.

Face Runout (Axial Eccentricity) of

the Flywheel

7.  Record the measurements for the cylinder.

8.  Repeat steps 3 to 7 for each cylinder.

Table 21

Required Tools

9.  Add the four readings for each cylinder. Divide the

sum by four in order to find the average.

Tool

Part Number

Part Description

Qty

A

21825617

Dial Indicator Group

1

Table 20

Specifications

0.025 to  0.152 mm

Liner Projection

(0.0010 to 0.0060 inch)

Maximum Variation  In

0.051 mm (0.0020 inch)

Each Liner

Maximum Average

Variation Between

Adjacent Liners

0.051 mm (0.0020 inch)

0.102 mm (0.0040 inch)

Maximum Variation

Between All Liners

Note: If the liner projection changes around the liner,

turn the liner to a new position within the bore. If the

liner projection is not within specifications, move the

liner to a different bore. Inspect the top face of the

cylinder block.

If the cylinder liner projections are below 0.025 mm

(0.0010 inch) or 0.051 mm (0.0020 inch) corrective

action must be taken. A thinner spacer  plate may

be used. The thinner spacer plate is available from

your Perkins distributor. The plates are 0.076 mm

(0.0030 inch) thinner than the original  plate. The

plates will increase the liner projection. Use these

spacer plates to compensate for low liner projections

which are less than the 0.076 mm (0.0030 inch). Use

these spacer plates if inspection of the top face  of

the cylinder block reveals no measurable damage

directly under the liner flanges but the average liner

projection is less than 0.076 mm (0.0030 inch).

g00286049

Illustration 41

Checking face runout of the flywheel

1.  Install Tooling (A). Refer to illustration 41. Always

put a force on the crankshaft in the same direction

before the dial indicator is read. This will remove

any crankshaft end clearance.

2.  Set the dial indicator to read 0.0 mm (0.00 inch).

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

KENR6231

51

Testing and  Adjusting Section

3.  Turn the flywheel at intervals of 45 degrees and

read the dial indicator.

4.  Take the measurements at all four points. The

difference between the lower measurements and

the higher measurements that are performed at

all four points must not be more than  0.15 mm

(0.006 inch), which is the maximum permissible

face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

Bore Runout (Radial Eccentricity)

of the Flywheel

Table 22

g00286058

Illustration 43

Flywheel clutch pilot bearing bore

Required Tools

Tool

Part Number

Part Description

Qty

5.  To find the runout (eccentricity) of the pilot bearing

A

21825617

Dial Indicator Group

1

bore, use the preceding procedure.

6.  The runout (eccentricity) of the bore for the pilot

bearing in the flywheel must not exceed 0.13 mm

(0.005 inch).

i02553531

Flywheel Housing - Inspect

Table 23

Required Tools

Tool

Part Number

Part Description

Qty

A

21825617

Dial Indicator Group

1

Face Runout (Axial Eccentricity) of

the Flywheel Housing

g01278054

Illustration 42

Checking bore runout of the flywheel

1.  Install Tooling (A). Refer to illustration 42.

2.  Set the dial indicator to read 0.0 mm (0.00 inch).

3.  Turn the flywheel at intervals of 45 degrees and

read the dial indicator.

4.  Take the measurements at all four points. The

difference between the lower measurements and

the higher measurements that are performed at

all four points must not be more than  0.15 mm

(0.006 inch) for the maximum permissible face

runout (radial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

g00285931

Illustration 44

Typical example

If you use any other method except the method that

is given here, always remember that  the bearing

clearance must be removed in order to receive the

correct measurements.

This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


 

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