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珀金斯Perkins2206D-E13TA故障排除维修技术资料

详细描述

Troubleshooting

2206D-E13TA Industrial Engine

Level 3 – Level 3 requires an immediate safe

shutdown of the engine to avoid damage to the

engine or injury to personnel around the engine. The

problem that caused the event must be corrected

before engine operation can resume.

Active Event Codes

An active event code represents a problem with

engine operation. Correct the problem as soon as

possible.

Active event codes are listed in ascending numerical

order. The code with the lowest number is listed first.

Illustration 21 is an example of the operating range of

a sensor.

Illustration 21

g01365757

Example of the typical operating range of a sensor

(1) This area represents the normal operating range of the engine

parameter.

(2) In these areas, the engine is operating in an unsafe operating

range of the monitored parameter. An event code will be

generated for the monitored parameter. The sensor circuit

does not have an electronic problem.

(3) In these areas, the signal from the sensor is outside of the

operating range of the sensor. The sensor circuit has an

electronic problem. A diagnostic code will be generated for the

sensor circuit. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble

Codes” for additional information on diagnostic codes.

Logged Event Codes

When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)

generates an event code, the ECM logs the code in

permanent memory. The ECM has an internal

diagnostic clock. The ECM will record the following

information when an event code is generated:

•   The hour of the first occurrence of the code

•   The hour of the last occurrence of the code

•   The number of occurrences of the code

Logged events are listed in chronological order. The

most recent event code is listed first.

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UENR4542

41

Event Codes

This information can be helpful for troubleshooting

intermittent problems. Logged codes can also be

used to review the performance of the engine.

Be sure to check the connectors. This step is

important for problems that are intermittent. Refer to

Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

Clearing Event Codes

If these steps do not resolve the problem, refer to

Table 10 or Table 9 for the procedure to troubleshoot

the event code.

A code is cleared from memory when one of the

following conditions occur:

•   The code does not recur for 100 hours.

•   A new code is logged and there are already ten

codes in memory. In this case, the oldest code is

cleared.

•   The service technician manually clears the code.

Always clear logged event codes after investigating

and correcting the problem which generated the

code.

Troubleshooting

For the basic troubleshooting of the engine, perform

the following steps to diagnose a malfunction:

1. Obtain the following information about the

complaint:

•   The event and the time of the event

•   Determine the conditions for the event. The

conditions will include the engine rpm and the

load.

•   Determine if there are any systems that were

installed by the dealer or by the customer that

could cause the event.

•   Determine whether any additional events

occurred.

2. Verify that the complaint is not due to normal

engine operation. Verify that the complaint is not

due to error of the operator.

3. Narrow the probable cause. Consider the operator

information, the conditions of operation, and the

history of the engine.

4. Perform a visual inspection. Inspect the following

items:

•   Fuel supply

•   Oil level

•   Oil supply

•   Wiring

•   Connectors

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Symptom Troubleshooting

Symptom Troubleshooting

Follow the Procedures

If these inspections do not reveal any problems, use

the procedure that best describes the symptoms. The

procedures in this manual provide the most efficient

way to determine the root cause of the problem.

i05958963

Symptom Troubleshooting

i05958966

Acceleration Is Poor or

Throttle Response Is Poor

Use the following guidelines as you troubleshoot an

engine symptom:

Gather Information

Download the “Warranty Report” from the engine

ECM before performing any troubleshooting or

clearing diagnostic trouble codes.

Interview the operator about the problem before you

begin troubleshooting, when possible.

Probable Causes

•   Codes

Verify the Problem

Attempt to duplicate the problem. Try to duplicate the

operating conditions, when possible. Verify that the

complaint is not due to normal engine operation.

•   Parameters

•   Throttle Signal

•   Air Inlet and Exhaust System

•   Fuel System

Diagnostic Codes

Check for any logged diagnostic codes.

•   Determine if the logged diagnostic codes correlate

to probable causes.

•   Engine Load

•   Determine if the logged diagnostic codes occur at

the same time as the symptoms.

•   Valve Lash

Recommended Actions

•   Determine if the logged diagnostic codes are

logged repeatedly.

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

Repair all active diagnostic codes. Refer to

Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes” for the

correct troubleshooting procedure.

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

Note: If the problem only occurs under certain

conditions, test the engine under those conditions.

Examples of certain conditions are high engine

speed, full load, and engine operating temperature.

Troubleshooting the symptoms under other

conditions can give misleading results.

Connectors and Wiring

Check the wiring and the connectors for the following

problems:

•   Damage

•   Abrasion

•   Corrosion

•   Incorrect attachment

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Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 11

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Check for Codes

Result: A diagnostic code is present.

Repair: Troubleshoot the code.

Diagnostic

Codes

A. Connect the electronic service tool to the service tool

connector.

Result: A diagnostic code is not present.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Incorrect Parameters

Result: The parameters are correct.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Parameters

A. Use the electronic service tool to verify that the correct param-

eters are being used. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Configuration

Parameters” for additional information.

Result: The parameters are not correct.

Repair: Input the correct parameters. Refer to Trouble-

shooting, “Configuration Parameters” for additional

information.

3. Throttle Signal

Result: The throttle signal is stable.

Throttle Signal    Proceed to Test Step 4.

A. Monitor the status for “Throttle Position” on the electronic serv-

ice tool. Verify that the status for “Throttle Position” is stable and

that the engine is able to reach high idle speed.

Result: The throttle signal is not stable.

Repair: Make the necessary repairs, Refer to the appro-

priate circuit test.

4. Restriction in the Air Inlet and Exhaust System

Result: There are no restrictions in the air inlet or exhaust

Restrictions

system.

A. Observe the check engine lamp. Check for an air filter restric-

tion indicator. Replace any plugged air filters. Refer to the Opera-

tion and Maintenance Manual.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: There are restrictions in the air inlet or exhaust

B. Check the air inlet and exhaust system for restrictions and/or

system.

leaks.

Repair: Make the necessary repairs, Refer to Systems

Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and Exhaust

System - Inspect” for additional information.

(continued)

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Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 11, contd)

5. Check the Fuel System

Result: The fuel pressure is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Fuel system

Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel System”

for additional information.

Result: The fuel pressure is not OK.

A. Visually check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Do not rely on the

fuel gauge only.

Repair: Replace the fuel filters. Clean the primary filter/

water separator of debris. Refer to the Operation and

Maintenance Manual for details.

B. Ensure that the vent in the fuel cap is not filled with debris.

C. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in the full

OPEN position.

D. Inspect the fuel system. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing

and Adjusting, “Fuel System - Inspect” for additional information.

E. Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics of the fuel.

Refer to the engines Operation and Maintenance Manual for infor-

mation on improving the characteristics of the fuel during cold-

weather operation. Cold mode (if applicable) is activated when-

ever the engine coolant temperature falls below a predetermined

value. Monitor the status screen on the electronic service tool in

order to verify that the engine has exited cold mode. Observe the

reading for coolant temperature on the electronic service tool.

Refer to "Cold Mode Operation" within the Systems Operation,

“General Information”.

F. Check fuel quality. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Ad-

justing, “Fuel Quality - Test” for the proper procedure. Check the

fuel tank for debris or foreign objects which may block the fuel

supply.

G. Check for the proper operation of the fuel transfer pump. Refer

to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel System” for

test information.

6. Engine Load

Engine loads

Result: There is not a parasitic load.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

A. Check accessories and parasitic loads on the engine.

Result: There is a parasitic load.

Repair: Remove the parasitic load.

7. Valve Lash

Valve lash

Result: The valve lash is not set correctly.

A. Check the valve lash. The valve lash can affect the perform-

Repair: Set the valve lash. Refer to Testing and Adjusting,

ance of the engine.

“Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust” for the correct

procedure.

STOP

i06244264

•   Charging Circuit

Alternator Problem

  

Recommended Actions

Probable Causes

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

•   Alternator

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Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 12

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Condition of the Alternator Drive Belts

Drive belt

Result: The alternator drive belts are in good condition

and the belt tension is correct.

A. Inspect the condition of the alternator drive belts.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

B. Check the belt tension. If the engine is equipped with an

automatic belt tensioner, check the automatic belt tensioner.

Result: The alternator drive belts are not in good condition

or the belt tension is incorrect.

Excessive belt tension can result in damage to the alternator.

Repair: If the alternator drive belts are worn or damaged,

replace the belts. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly for

the correct procedure.

If necessary, replace the automatic belt tensioner. Refer to

Disassembly and Assembly for the correct procedure.

2. Condition of the Alternator Drive Pulley

Alternator Drive

Pulley

Result: There is excessive wear on the alternator drive

pulley.

A. Check the condition of the alternator drive pulley. Look for

deep grooves that have been worn into the pulley by the belt.

Check that the nut for the pulley has not become loose.

Repair: Replace the pulley.

Result: The alternator drive pulley nut was loose.

Repair: Tighten the nut.

Result: There is not excessive wear on the alternator drive

pulley.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Wear of the Alternator Bearings

Alternator bearings  Result: The alternator bearings are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

A. Check the alternator bearings for signs of wear.

Result: The alternator bearings are not OK.

Repair: Repair the alternator or replace the alternator, as

needed. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly for the cor-

rect procedure.

4. Operation of the Alternator or Regulator

Regulator and

alternator

Result: The regulator and alternator are operating

properly.

A. Verify that the alternator or the regulator is operating cor-

rectly. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,

“Charging System - Test” for the proper testing procedures.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The regulator and alternator are not operating

properly.

Repair: Repair the alternator and regulator or replace the

alternator and regulator, as needed. Refer to Disassembly

and Assembly for the correct procedure.

5. Inspection of the Charging Circuit

Charging circuit

Result: The charging circuit is not working properly.

A. Inspect the battery cables, wiring, and connections in the

Repair: Clean all connections and tighten all connections.

charging circuit.

Replace any faulty parts.

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Symptom Troubleshooting

If the procedure did not correct the issue, contact the

Dealer Solutions Network (DSN).

i05959017

Battery Problem

  

Probable Causes

•   Battery

•   Switched Battery Circuit

Recommended Actions

Download the Product Status Report from the engine

ECM before performing any troubleshooting or

clearing diagnostic trouble codes. Troubleshoot any

active codes before continuing with this procedure.

Table 13

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1.Check the Battery

Battery

Result: The battery is OK.

A. Verify that the battery is no longer able to hold a charge. Refer

Proceed to Test Step 2.

to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Battery - Test”.

Result: The battery is not OK.

Repair: Replace the battery. Refer to Disassembly and As-

sembly for the correct procedure.

2. Check the Switched Battery Circuit

Switched

battery

circuit

Result: The switched battery circuit drained the battery by

being left in the ON position.

A. Verify that a switched battery circuit drained the battery by

being left in the ON position.

Repair: Charge the battery. Verify that the battery is able to

maintain a charge. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and

Adjusting for the correct procedure.

i06245217

Coolant Contains Fuel

  

Probable Causes

•   Leaking injector sleeve and/or damaged seal

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Symptom Troubleshooting

Recommended Actions

Table 14

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Leaking injector sleeve and/or damaged seal

A. Remove the valve mechanism covers.

Result: The injector sleeve is leaking.

Injector sleeve

Repair: Remove the injector sleeve that is leaking. Carefully

inspect the sleeve for damage. If there are visible signs of

damage to the injector sleeve, replace the sleeve. Replace the

O-ring seals for the injector sleeve and reinstall the sleeve. Re-

place any damaged components.

B. Remove the fuel injectors from the cylinder head.

Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly manual for details.

Do not allow the pressure on the cooling system to exceed

103 kPa (15 psi) during the test. Damage to the cooling

system may result from applying excessive pressure.

Coolant may also be contaminating the fuel system. After the

engine is shut down, the retention of pressure in the cooling

system may cause the transfer of coolant into the fuel system.

Visually inspect the fuel tank for coolant. The contamination of

coolant in the fuel system may damage injectors and other fuel

system components. Ensure that all of the fuel system compo-

nents are in good repair prior to returning the engine to

service.

C. Pressurize the cooling system in order to identify the injector

sleeve that is leaking. Closely inspect the sealing joint around

the top of the injector sleeve. Small amounts of coolant will be

dripping from the injector sleeve that is leaking.

Coolant may also be contaminating the fuel system. After the

engine is shut down, the retention of pressure in the cooling

system may cause the transfer of coolant into the fuel system.

Visually inspect the fuel tank for coolant. The contamination of

coolant in the fuel system may damage injectors and other fuel

system components. Ensure that all of the fuel system compo-

nents are in good repair prior to returning the engine to service.

Do not crank the engine if a cylinder is full of fluid. Cata-

strophic damage can occur to the engine.

Evacuate all cylinders of fluid before trying to start the engine.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the

steps are listed.

i06245230

Coolant Contains Oil

  

Probable Causes

•   Engine Oil Cooler

•   Power Train Oil Cooler (if equipped)

•   Water-Cooled Turbocharger

•   Cylinder Head Gasket

•   Block

The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

Verify the presence of oil in the coolant with a

scheduled oil sample. Verification must be made

before performing the procedure.

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Symptom Troubleshooting

Recommended Actions

Table 15

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Leak in the Engine Oil Cooler

Oil Cooler

Result: A leak is found in the engine oil cooler.

A. Check for leaks in the engine oil cooler. Refer to Testing

Repair: Install a new oil cooler core. Refer to the Disas-

and Adjusting for the proper procedure.

sembly and Assembly manual.

Flush the cooling system. Refer to the Operation and

Maintenance Manual for the proper flushing procedure.

Refill the cooling system with the proper coolant. Refer to

the Operation and Maintenance Manual for the correct

coolant and capacities.

Check the oil for coolant. If coolant is found in the oil, drain

the crankcase. Refill the crankcase with the proper oil after

the leak has been repaired. Refer to the Operation and

Maintenance Manual for the correct oil capacities and

viscosity.

Result: A leak was not found in the engine oil cooler.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Leak in the Power Train Oil Cooler

Power train cooler   Result: A leak is found in the power train oil cooler.

A. Check for leaks in the power train oil cooler. Refer to Test-

Repair: Install a new oil cooler core. Refer to the Disas-

ing and Adjusting for the proper procedure

sembly and Assembly manual.

Flush the cooling system. Refer to the Operation and

Maintenance Manual for the proper flushing procedure.

Refill the cooling system with the proper coolant. Refer to

the Operation and Maintenance Manual for the correct

coolant and capacities.

Check the oil for coolant. If coolant is found in the oil, drain

the crankcase. Refill the oil after the leak has been re-

paired. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual

for the correct oil capacities and viscosity.

Result: A leak was not found in the power train oil cooler.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

(continued)

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Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 15, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

3. Water-Cooled Turbocharger (if equipped)

Turbocharger

Result: The turbocharger is cracked.

A. Inspect the turbocharger for cracks.

Repair: Replace the turbocharger. Refer to the engine

Disassembly and Assembly for the correct procedure.

B. Remove the oil drain line from the turbo and pressurize the

cooling system, Refer to Testing and Adjusting, “Cooling Sys-

tem - Test”.

Flush the cooling system, Refer to the Operation and

Maintenance Manual for the correct procedure.

C. Check the turbocharger for coolant leakage.

Refill the cooling system with the proper coolant. Refer to

the Operation and Maintenance Manual for the correct

coolant and capacities.

Check the oil for coolant. If coolant is found in the oil, drain

the oil. Refill the oil after the leak has been repaired. Refer

to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for the correct

oil capacities.

Result: The turbocharger is not cracked.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Cylinder Head Gasket

Cylinder head

gasket

Result: New cylinder head gasket and water seals were

installed.

A. Remove the cylinder head. Refer to the Disassembly and

Assembly manual.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

B. Check the cylinder liner projection. Refer to the Systems

Operation/Testing and Adjusting manual.

C. Install a new cylinder head gasket and new water seals in

the spacer plate. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly

manual.

5. Cylinder Head

Cylinder head

Result: A crack is found in the cylinder head.

A. Check for cracks in the cylinder head. Perform a leak test

on the cylinder head. Refer to System Operation, Testing and

Adjusting for the proper procedure for checking the cylinder

head.

Repair: Repair the cylinder head and/or replace the cylin-

der head. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly

manual.

Result: A crack is not found in the cylinder head.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: A crack is found in the cylinder block.

6. Cylinder Block

Cylinder block

Repair: Repair the cylinder block or replace the cylinder

block. Inspect the top deck. Refer to Systems Operation,

Testing and Adjusting, “Cylinder Block - Inspect” for the

proper inspection procedure.

A. Inspect the cylinder block for cracks.

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Symptom Troubleshooting

Complete the procedure in the order in which the

steps are listed.

i06300672

Coolant Level Is Low

Use this procedure in order to troubleshoot low

coolant level or use this procedure if one of the

following codes is active. Refer to Troubleshooting,

“Diagnostic Trouble Codes” for information about

diagnostic codes. Access the monitoring system on

the electronic service tool in order to view the current

trip points for these codes. For information on the

engine monitoring system, refer to Troubleshooting,

“Diagnostic Capabilities”.

Note: Some of the following codes may not be

applicable for certain applications.

Table 16

Diagnostic Trouble Codes

Code Description

J1939 Code

PDL Code

System Response

The engine has been running for 60 seconds. The engine cool-

Engine Coolant Level : Low - Most   ant level has fallen below the coolant level sensor for the

111-1

E2143 (3)

Severe (3)

specified delay time.

Engine power is derated. The code is logged.

The engine has been running for 60 seconds. The engine cool-

ant level has fallen below the coolant level sensor for the

specified delay time.

Engine Coolant Level : Low - Least

Severe (1)

111-17

111-18

E2143 (1)

E2143 (2)

The code is logged.

The engine has been running for 60 seconds. The engine cool-

ant level has fallen below the coolant level sensor for the

specified delay time.

Engine Coolant Level : Low - Moder-

ately Severe (2)

Engine power is derated. The code is logged.

Probable Causes

•   Low Coolant Level and/or Coolant Leakage

•   Coolant level sensor

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

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Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 17

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Low Coolant Level and/or Coolant Leakage

Coolant level Result: The engine coolant level is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

A. Inspect the coolant level.

Result: The engine coolant level is not OK.

Repair: Troubleshoot the cause of the incorrect coolant

level.

1. Check for the correct mixture of antifreeze and water. Re-

fer to Operation and Maintenance Manual.

2. Check the cooling system for leaks. Refer to Systems Op-

eration/Testing and Adjusting, “Cooling System - Test” for

the correct procedure. Repair any leaks immediately.

3. Check for air in the cooling system. Refer to Systems Op-

eration/Testing and Adjusting, “Testing the Cooling System”

for the correct procedure.

2. Faulty Sensor

Coolant level Result: The coolant level sensor is not operating properly.

sensor

A. If an electrical problem with the coolant level sensor is sus-

pected, refer to Troubleshooting, “Coolant Level - Test” for informa-

tion that is related to troubleshooting an electrical problem with the

coolant level sensor.

Repair: Replace the coolant level sensor.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the

steps are listed.

i06300696

Coolant Temperature Is High

Use this procedure in order to troubleshoot high

coolant temperature or use this procedure if one of

the following event codes is active. Access the

monitoring system on the electronic service tool in

order to view the current trip points for these codes.

Table 18

Diagnostic Trouble Codes

Code Description

J1939 Code

PDL Code

Comments

The engine coolant temperature has exceeded the

Engine Coolant Temperature High trip point and the delay time has expired.

110-0

E361 (3)

- Most Severe (3)

Engine power is derated.

The code is logged.

The engine coolant temperature has exceeded the

trip point and delay time has expired.

The code is logged.

Engine Coolant Temperature

High- Least Severe (1)

110-15

110-16

E361 (1)

E361 (2)

The engine coolant temperature has exceeded the

trip point and the delay time has expired.

The code is logged.

High Engine Coolant Temperature

High - Moderate Severity (2)

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Symptom Troubleshooting

Probable Causes

•   Low Coolant Level and/or Coolant Leakage

•   Coolant Temperature Sensor

•   Water Temperature Regulator and/or Pressure

Relief Valve

•   Radiator

•   Heat Exchanger

•   Engine Cooling Fan (if equipped)

•   Coolant Pump

•   Cylinder Head Gasket

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

Table 19

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Coolant

Engine coolant  Result: The engine coolant level is OK.

level

A. Inspect the coolant level.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The engine coolant level is not OK.

Repair: Check the cooling system for leaks. Refer to Trou-

bleshooting, “Coolant Level is Low” for additional informa-

tion. Repair any leaks immediately.

2. Coolant Temperature Sensor and/or the Circuit

Coolant tem-

perature

sensor

Result: The temperature sensor is working properly.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

A. Check the reading of the coolant temperature on the electronic

service tool. The temperature should rise steadily as the engine is

warmed. Ensure that the temperature is reasonable.

Result: The temperature sensor is not working properly.

Repair: Troubleshoot the circuit and the coolant tempera-

ture sensor. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Sensor Signal

(Analog, Passive) - Test”.

3. Water Temperature Regulator and/or Pressure Relief Valve

Temperature

regulator

Result: The pressure relief valve and/or the water temper-

ature regulator are operating properly.

A. Pressure-test the cooling system. Refer to Systems Operation/

Testing and Adjusting for the correct procedure.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

B. Check that the seating surfaces of the pressure relief valve and

Result: The pressure relief valve and/or the water temper-

the radiator cap are clean and undamaged.

ature regulator are not operating properly.

C. Check operation of the pressure relief valve and/or the water

Repair: Clean the components and/or replace the

temperature regulator.

components.

(continued)

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Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 19, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

4. Radiator

Radiator

Result : The radiator fins are not damaged and the radia-

tor does not have an internal blockage.

A. Check the radiator fins for dirt, debris, and/or damage.

B. Check for collapsed hoses and/or other restrictions.

C. Check the radiator for internal blockage.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result : The radiator fins are damaged.

Repair: Remove any dirt and/or debris and straighten any

Ensure that the radiator size is sufficient. An undersized radiator

does not have enough area for the effective release of heat. An un-

dersized radiator may cause the engine to run at a temperature

that is higher than normal. The normal temperature is dependent

on the ambient temperature.

bent fins.

Result : The radiator has internal blockage.

Remove the blockage.

5. Heat Exchanger

Heat

exchanger

Result : The flow of cooling water is sufficient.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

A. Check for sufficient flow and temperature of the cooling water

through the heat exchanger.

Result : The flow of cooling water is not sufficient.

Repair: Determine the location of the obstruction. If the

temperature of the cooling water is too high, determine the

cause. Ensure that the size of the heat exchanger is suffi-

cient. Make the necessary repairs.

6. Faulty Engine Cooling Fan (if equipped)

Fan belt or

clutch

Result : The fan belt is tensioned correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

A. If the fan is belt driven, check for loose drive belts.

A loose fan drive belt will cause a reduction in the air flow across

the radiator.

Result : The fan belt is not tensioned correctly.

Repair: Adjust the tension of the fan drive belt, if neces-

B. Check the fan clutch, if equipped.

sary. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual.

A fan clutch or a hydraulic driven fan that is not turning at the cor-

rect speed can cause improper air speed across the radiator core.

The lack of proper air flow across the radiator core can cause the

coolant not to cool to the proper temperature differential.

Result : The fan clutch is operating correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result : The fan clutch is not operating correctly.

Repair: Refer to Troubleshooting, “Cooling Fan Control -

Test” for troubleshooting information.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

54

UENR4542

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 19, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

7. Inspection of the Coolant Pump

Coolant pump   Result : The coolant pump is operating correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

A. Inspect the impeller of the coolant pump for damage and/or

erosion.

Result : The coolant pump is not operating correctly.

B. Make sure that the drive gear is not loose on the drive shaft of

the coolant pump.

Repair: If necessary, replace the coolant pump. Refer to

Disassembly and Assembly for the correct procedure.

9. Cylinder Head Gasket

Head gasket

Result : The cylinder head was checked for leaks and the

gasket was replaced.

A. Remove the cylinder head. Refer to the Disassembly and As-

sembly manual.

Verify that the problem was corrected.

B. Check the cylinder liner projection. Refer to the Systems Opera-

tion/Testing and Adjusting manual.

C. Pressure test the head for leaks.

D. Install a new cylinder head gasket and new water seals in the

spacer plate. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly manual.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the

steps are listed.

i06245465

Cylinder Is Noisy

  

Probable Causes

•   Active codes and logged codes

•   Low quality fuel

•   Injectors

•   Lack of lubrication

•   Valve train components

•   Gear train and components of the lower end

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

UENR4542

55

Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 20

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Active Codes and Logged Codes

Codes

Result: A diagnostic trouble code is not active or logged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool

and the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

Result: A diagnostic trouble code is active or logged.

Repair: Troubleshoot the active or logged codes.

2. Low Quality Fuel

Fuel

Result: The fuel quality is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

A. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual for information on

the proper characteristics of the fuel for the engine. If necessary,

obtain a fuel analysis in order to confirm that the correct fuel is

being used for the engine. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and

Adjusting, “Fuel System Quality Test” for the proper procedure.

Result: The fuel quality is not OK.

Repair: Replace the fuel. Verify that the repair eliminated

the problem.

3. Injectors

Injector Sole-   Result: The test was successful.

noid Test or

Cylinder Cut-   Proceed to Test Step 4.

out Test

Result: The test was not successful.

A. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” on the electronic service

tool in order to determine if all of the injector solenoids are being

energized by the ECM.

Repair: Diagnose the problem and then repair the

B. Access the “Cylinder Cutout Test” in the “Diagnostic Tests”

under the “Diagnostics”  menu.

problem.

Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes.

Verify that the repair eliminated the problem.

C. Perform the “Automatic Cylinder Cutout Test” on the electronic

service tool.

4. Lack of Lubrication

Lubrication

Result: The oil passages are not blocked and the engine

has proper lubrication.

A. Check for proper lubrication of the valve components. Check for

sufficient lubrication between the injector tappets and the rocker

arms.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The oil passages are blocked or the engine does

B. Check for blocked oil passages. Oil passages must be clean.

Clean any oil passages that are questionable. Refer to the Disas-

sembly and Assembly for additional information.

not have proper lubrication.

Repair: Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair

eliminated the problem.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

56

UENR4542

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 20, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

5. Valve Train Components

Valve train

Result: The valve train components are not damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

A. Check the valve lash. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Valve Lash Is

Excessive”.

Result: The valve train components are damaged.

B. Check for damage to valve train components. Remove the valve

cover from the suspect cylinders. Check the following items for

damage:

Repair: Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair

eliminated the problem.

1.  Camshaft

2. Valve rotocoil

3. Valve springs

4. Camshaft followers

5. Rocker shaft

6.  Bridges

7.  Pushrods

8.  Injectors

Refer to Disassembly and Assembly for additional information.

C. Check for valves that do not move freely. Remove the cylinder

head and inspect the valves.

Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly for additional information.

6. Gear Train and Components of the Lower End

Gear train

Result: The gear train or lower end components are

damaged.

A. Inspect the gear train and lower end components.

Repair: Replace any damaged parts.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the

steps are listed.

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in the order of

the listed test steps.

i05962229

ECM Does Not Communicate

with Other Modules

Probable Causes

•   Wiring and/or electrical connectors

•   Perkins  Data Link

•   CAN data link (if equipped)

•   Electronic Control Module (ECM)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

UENR4542

57

Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 21

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Check for correct installation of the con-

nectors for the ECM J1/P1, J2/P2, and J3/

P3.

ECM

Result: Connectors are installed incorrectly.

Repair: Correct the installation issue. Return

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connec-

tors - Inspect”

to service.

Result: Connectors are installed correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 2

Result: The electronic service tool will not

communicate with the ECM.

Proceed to troubleshooting without a diagnos-

tic code Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service

Tool Does Not Communicate”.

2. Connect the Electronic Service Tool to

the Service Tool Connector.

The electronic service tool

Result: The electronic service tool communi-

cates with the ECM. Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Troubleshoot the Perkins Data Link for

possible problems.

Perkins Data Link

Result: Perkins Data Link does not connect.

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Data Link Circuit -

Test”.

Result: Perkins Data Link connects. Proceed

to Test Step 4.

4. Troubleshoot the CAN Data Link (if

equipped) for possible problems.

CAN Data Link

Result: CAN Data Link does not connect. Re-

fer to Troubleshooting, “CAN Data Link Circuit

- Test”.

Result: CAN Data Link connects. Return to

service.

i06301360

Engine Cranks but Does Not

Start

Download the “Product Status Report” from the

engine Electronic Control Module (ECM) before

performing any troubleshooting or clearing diagnostic

trouble codes.

Note: If the engine will not start and the electronic

service tool will not communicate with the ECM, the

problem is most likely with the electrical power supply

to the ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical

Power Supply - Test”.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

58

UENR4542

Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 22

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Inspection of the Fuel Supply

Fuel Level

Result : The fuel level is OK.

A. Visually check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Do not rely

on the fuel gauge only.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result : The fuel level is NOT OK.

Repair : Fill the tank.

STOP

B. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in the

full OPEN position.

2. Check the , Engine Shutdown Switches if Applicable

Engine Shutdown  Result : The switches are in the OFF position.

Switches

A. The engine shutdown switches must be in the OFF

Proceed to Test Step 3.

position.

Result : The switches are not in the OFF position.

Repair : Turn the switches to the OFF position.

STOP

B. Use the electronic service tool to verify the status of the

engine shutdown switches. When a shutdown occurs, the

keyswitch must be turned to the OFF position for at least 15

seconds before restarting the engine.

3. Check the Engine Starting Aids if Applicable

Starting Aids

Result : The starting aid is operating correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

A. If cold ambient conditions exist, check the operation of

the starting aids. Verify that the starting aid is operating

correctly.

Result : The starting aid is not operating correctly.

Repair : Refer to the appropriate circuit test in order to trou-

bleshoot the starting aid.

4. Restrictions in the Air Inlet and Exhaust System

Air and Exhaust

System

Restrictions

Result : There are no system restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

A. Check for an air filter restriction indicator.

B. Check the air inlet and exhaust system for restrictions

Result : There are system restrictions.

and/or leaks.

Refer to Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and Exhaust System

- Inspect” for more information on air system restrictions.

Repair : Replace plugged air filters. Refer to the Operation

and Maintenance Manual for the correct procedure.

5. Check for Activation of the Theft Deterrent System if  Theft Deterrent

Result : The theft deterrent system is not active.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Applicable

System

A. Verify that the theft deterrent system is not active.

Result : The theft deterrent system is active.

Repair : Turn the theft deterrent system OFF.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

UENR4542

59

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 22, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

6. Check the Coolant Temperature Sensor for Proper

Operation

Coolant Tempera-  Result : The sensor is operating properly.

ture Sensor

Proceed to Test Step 7.

A. The coolant temperature sensor must provide a correct

signal in order for cold mode operation to operate correctly.

Refer to Cold Mode Operation within the Systems Opera-

tion, “General Information”.

Result : The sensor is not operating properly.

Repair : Refer to Troubleshooting, “Sensor Signal (Analog,

Passive) - Test” for troubleshooting information.

B. Verify that the coolant temperature on the electronic serv-

ice tool is reasonable for the conditions that are present.

7. Check the Engine Speed Signal for Proper Operation  Timing Signal

Result : The timing sensor is operating properly.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

A. Crank the engine and observe the engine speed on the

electronic service tool status screen. Refer to Troubleshoot-

ing, “Speed/Timing - Test” for additional information.

Result : The timing sensor is not operating properly.

Upon initial cranking, the status for engine speed may indi-

cate that the engine speed signal is abnormal. This mes-

sage will be replaced with an engine speed once the ECM

is able to calculate a speed from the signal.

Repair : Refer to Troubleshooting, “Speed/Timing - Test” for

troubleshooting information.

8. Inspect the Low-Pressure Fuel System

Low-Pressure

Fuel System

Result : The low-pressure fuel system is not operating

properly.

A. Inspect the fuel system. Refer to Systems Operation/

Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel System” for additional

information.

Repair : Make the necessary repairs. Return the engine to

service.

B. Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics of the

fuel. Refer to the engines Operation and Maintenance Man-

ual for information on improving the characteristics of the

fuel during cold-weather operation.

C. Check fuel quality. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing

and Adjusting, “Fuel System” for the proper procedure.

Check the fuel tank for debris or foreign objects which may

block the fuel supply.

D. Check the filtered fuel pressure while the engine is being

cranked. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting,

“Fuel System” for the test procedure and for the correct

pressure values.

If the fuel pressure is low, replace the fuel filters. Clean the

primary filter/water separator of debris. Refer to the Opera-

tion and Maintenance Manual for details.

E. Check for the proper operation of the fuel transfer pump.

Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel

System” for test information.

i05963806

Engine Does Not Crank

Use this procedure to troubleshoot an engine that will

not crank.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

60

UENR4542

Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 23

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Inspection of the Batteries and Battery Cables

Batteries are OK   Result The batteries and cables are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

A. Inspect the main power switch, battery posts, and battery ca-

bles for loose connections and for corrosion. If the battery ca-

bles are corroded, remove the battery cables and clean the

battery cables. Tighten any loose connections.

Result The batteries and cables are not OK.

Make the necessary repairs. STOP.

B. Inspect the batteries.

C. Charge the batteries.

D. Test the batteries. Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,

“Battery - Test”.

2. Switches and/or Circuit Breakers (if applicable)

Switches and/or    Result The switches and/or circuit breakers are OK.

circuit breakers

A. If equipped, check any switches and/or circuit breakers that   are OK

may interfere with the engine cranking. Refer to the applications

electrical schematic for additional information.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result The switches and/or circuit breakers are not OK.

Make the necessary repairs. STOP.

3. Starting Motor Solenoid and Starting Circuit

Starting motor

solenoid and cir-

Result The starting motor solenoid and circuit are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Test the operation of the starting motor circuit. Refer to Systems  cuit are OK.

Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Electrical System” for addi-

tional information.

Result The starting motor solenoid and circuit are not OK.

Make the necessary repairs. STOP.

4. Inspect the Starter Pinion and Flywheel Ring Gear

Starter pinion

and flywheel ring

gear are OK

Result The starter pinion and flywheel ring gear are OK.

A. Test the operation of the starting motor.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

B. Check the pinion clearance. Inspect the pinion and the fly-

wheel ring gear for damage. Refer to Systems Operation/Test-

ing and Adjusting, “Electrical System” for additional information.

Result The starter pinion and flywheel ring gear are not

OK.

Make the necessary repairs. STOP.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

UENR4542

61

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 23, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

5. Inspect Engine Accessories and the Transmission (if

applicable)

Engine accesso-   Result The engine accessories and transmission are OK.

ries and trans-

mission are OK    Proceed to Test Step 6.

A. Ensure free movement of the driveline.

Result The engine accessories and transmission are not

B. Remove any engine accessories that may lock up the engine

and inspect any engine accessories that may lock up the

engine.

OK.

Make the necessary repairs. STOP.

The following list illustrates examples of engine accessories that

may lock up the engine:

1. Hydraulic pump that is driven from the rear gear group

2. Air compressor

3. Engine oil pump

4. Other components that are driven by the engine

6. Hydraulic Cylinder Lock

Hydraulic cylin-     Result The engine has hydraulic cylinder lock.

der lock

A. If an injector has been replaced, evacuate any fluids from the

cylinder and attempt to start the engine. Fuel will flow from the

cylinder head into the cylinders when a unit injector is removed.

Make the necessary repairs. STOP.

B. If the engine will not start, check for fluid in the cylinders (hy-

draulic cylinder lock) by removing the individual unit injectors.

Check for damaged seals. Determine the type of fluid that

locked up the cylinder.

C. If there was excessive fuel in the cylinder, replace the seals

and reinstall the injector. Drain any excess fuel from the cylinder

head.

D. If a mechanical problem is suspected, disassemble the en-

gine. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly manual. Inspect

the internal components for the following conditions:

1. Seizure

2. Broken components

3. Bent components

i06251981

Recommended Actions

Engine Has Early Wear

  

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

Probable Causes

•   Incorrect maintenance intervals and/or incorrect

oil

•   Contaminated engine oil

•   Low oil pressure

•   Leaks in the air system

•   Inspect the fuel filters for contamination.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

62

UENR4542

Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 24

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Incorrect Maintenance Intervals and/or Incorrect Oil

Maintenance

intervals

Result: The engine oil was changed at the interval that is

recommended by the engines Operation and Mainte-

nance Manual.

A. Use engine oil that is recommended and change the engine oil

at the interval that is recommended by the engines Operation and

Maintenance Manual.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: The engine oil was not changed at the interval

that is recommended by the engines Operation and Main-

tenance Manual.

Repair: Use at least the minimum recommended grade

of oil. refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual.

Change the engine oil at the interval that is recom-

mended. Repair or replace any damaged parts.

2. Contaminated Engine Oil

Contamination

Result: The oil is contaminated.

A. Check the engine oil for contamination.

B. Check the oil filter bypass valve.

Repair: Determine the reason for any contamination of

the engine oil and make the necessary repairs. Drain the

crankcase and refill the crankcase with clean engine oil.

Install new engine oil filters. Refer to the engines Opera-

tion and Maintenance Manual.

If the oil filter bypass valve is open, the oil will not be filtered.

Check the oil filter bypass valve for a weak spring or for a broken

spring. If the spring is broken, replace the spring. Verify that the oil

bypass valve is operating correctly. Refer to the Disassembly and

Assembly manual.

Result: The oil is not contaminated.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Low Oil Pressure

Restriction

Result: The inlet tube has a restriction.

Repair: Clear the obstruction. Verify the repair.

Result: The inlet tube does not have a restriction.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

A. Engine oil that is contaminated with another liquid can cause

low engine oil pressure. High engine oil level can be an indication

of contamination. Obtain an analysis of the engine oil.

B. The inlet screen of the suction tube for the engine oil pump can

have a restriction. This restriction will cause cavitation and a loss

of engine oil pressure. Check the inlet screen on the suction tube

and remove any material that may be restricting engine oil flow.

When some components of the engine show wear in a short time,

the cause can be a restriction in a passage for engine oil. An indi-

cator for the engine oil pressure may indicate sufficient pressure,

but a component is worn due to a lack of lubrication. In such a

case, look at the passage for the engine oil supply to the compo-

nent. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Lubrica-

tion System” for additional information.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

UENR4542

63

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 24, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

4. Leaks in Air System

Air leak

Result: There are no air leaks.

A. A leak in the air intake system may allow unfiltered air into the

engine. Inspect the air intake system for streaks which may indi-

cate a leakage of unfiltered air. Inspect all of the gaskets and the

connections.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: There are air leaks.

Repair: Repair any leaks.

5. Inspect the Fuel Filters for Contamination

Fuel filters

Result: The fuel has contamination.

A. Remove the fuel filters. Inspect the fuel filters for contamina-

tion. Contaminants in the fuel such as hydrogen sulfide and sulfur

can lead to the formation of acids in the crankcase. Obtain a fuel

analysis.

Repair: Determine the cause of any contamination and

make the necessary repairs.

Install new fuel filters. Refer to the Operation and Mainte-

nance Manual.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the

steps are listed.

i06302640

Engine Has Mechanical Noise

(Knock)

Probable Causes

•   Active codes and logged codes

•   Electrical connections

•   Fuel injection

•   Fuel quality

•   Proper lubrication

•   Isolate the source of the noise.

•   Valve train components

•   Gear train and lower end components

•   Crankshaft

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

64

UENR4542

Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 25

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Active Codes and Logged Codes

Codes

Result: There are active codes.

A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool

and the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Refer to Troubleshoot-

ing, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary.

Repair: Troubleshoot any active codes before continuing

with this procedure.

Result: There are no active codes.

B. Check for active diagnostic codes.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Electrical Connections

Connectors

Result: There are suspect connectors.

A. Check for the correct installation of the ECM J1/P1 and the J2/

P2 connectors. Check for correct installation of the fuel injector

connectors.

Repair: Repair connectors that are suspect or replace con-

nectors that are suspect.

Perform the “Wiggle Test” on the electronic service tool.

Result: There are no suspect connectors.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Fuel Injection

Diagnostic

Test

Result: The test was successful.

A. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” on the electronic service

tool in order to determine if all of the injector solenoids are being

energized by the ECM.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The test was not successful.

B. Access the “Cylinder Cutout Test” in the “Diagnostic Tests”

under the “Diagnostics”  menu.

Repair: Diagnose the problem and then repair the problem.

Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes.

Verify that the repair eliminated the problem.

C. Perform the “Automatic Cylinder Cutout Test” on the electronic

service tool.

4. Fuel Quality

Fuel

Result: The fuel quality is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

A. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual for information on

the proper characteristics of the fuel for the engine. If necessary,

obtain a fuel analysis in order to confirm that the correct fuel is

being used for the engine. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing

and Adjusting, “Fuel System Quality Test” for the proper

procedure.

Result: The fuel quality is not OK.

Repair: Replace the fuel. Verify that the repair eliminated

the problem.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

UENR4542

65

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 25, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

5. Proper Lubrication

Lubrication

Result: The oil passages are not blocked and the engine

has proper lubrication.

A. Check for proper lubrication of the valve components. Check

for sufficient lubrication between the injector tappets and the rock-

er arms.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The oil passages are blocked or the engine does

B. Check for blocked oil passages. Oil passages must be clean.

Clean any oil passages that are questionable. Refer to the Disas-

sembly and Assembly for additional information.

not have proper lubrication.

Repair: Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair

eliminated the problem.

C. Inspect the engine oil filters for ferrous material.

D. Obtain an oil analysis. The analysis will contribute to a better

understanding of oil contamination and the origin of the

contamination.

6. Isolate the Source of the Noise

Engine

Result An engine accessory is the source of the noise.

accessory

A. If the source of the noise is the engine accessory, remove the

Repair: Repair the engine accessory and/or replace the en-

suspect engine accessory. Inspect the suspect engine accessory.

gine accessory, if necessary.

Result An engine accessory is not the source of the noise.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

7. Valve Train Components

Valve train

Result: The valve train components are not damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

A. Check the valve lash. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Valve Lash Is

Excessive”.

Result: The valve train components are damaged.

B. Check for damage to valve train components. Remove the

valve cover from the suspect cylinders. Check the following items

for damage:

Repair: Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair

eliminated the problem.

1.  Camshaft

2. Valve rotocoil

3. Valve springs

4. Camshaft followers

5. Rocker shaft

6.  Bridges

7.  Pushrods

8.  Injectors

Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly for additional information.

C. Check for valves that do not move freely. Remove the cylinder

head and inspect the valves.

Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly for additional information.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

66

UENR4542

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 25, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

8. Gear Train and Components of the Lower End

Gear train

Result: The gear train or lower end components are

damaged.

A. Inspect the gear train and lower end components.

Repair: Replace any damaged parts.

Result: The gear train or lower end components are not

damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

9. Crankshaft

Crankshaft

Result: The crankshaft or the related components are dam-

aged or worn.

A. Inspect the crankshaft and the related components. Look for

worn thrust plates and wear on the crankshaft.

Repair: Repair or replace any damaged parts. Verify that

the repair eliminated the problem.

B. Inspect the connecting rod bearings and the bearing surfaces

on the crankshaft. Make sure that the bearings are in the correct

position.

C. Check the counterweight bolts.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the

steps are listed.

i06302645

Engine Misfires, Runs Rough

or Is Unstable

Note: Refer to Troubleshooting, “Service Tool

Features” for information about service features.

Probable Causes

•   Active codes and logged codes

•   Low quality fuel

•   Fuel injectors

•   Lack of lubrication

•   Valve train components

•   Gear train and components of the lower end

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

UENR4542

67

Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 26

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Active Codes and Logged Codes

Codes

Result: There are active codes.

A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool

and the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Refer to Troubleshoot-

ing, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary.

Repair: Troubleshoot any active codes before continuing

with this procedure.

Result: There are no active codes.

B. Check for active diagnostic codes.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Troubleshoot any active codes before continuing with this

procedure.

2. Fuel Quality

Fuel

Result: The fuel quality is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

A. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual for information on

the proper characteristics of the fuel for the engine. If necessary,

obtain a fuel analysis in order to confirm that the correct fuel is

being used for the engine. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing

and Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test” for the proper procedure.

Result: The fuel quality is not OK.

Repair: Replace the fuel. Verify that the repair eliminated

the problem.

3. Fuel Injectors

Diagnostic

Test

Result: The test was successful.

If service has been performed on the engine fuel system recently,

verify that the injector trim files are correct. Use the electronic serv-

ice tool to check that the injector trim files are correct for the injec-

tors that are installed on the engine.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The test was not successful.

Repair: Diagnose the problem and then repair the problem.

Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes.

Verify that the repair eliminated the problem.

A. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” on the electronic service

tool in order to determine if all of the injector solenoids are being

energized by the ECM.

B. Access the “Cylinder Cutout Test” in the “Diagnostic Tests”

under the “Diagnostics”  menu.

C. Perform the “Automatic Cylinder Cutout Test” on the electronic

service tool.

4. Proper Lubrication

Lubrication

Result: The oil passages are not blocked and the engine

has proper lubrication.

A. Check for proper lubrication of the valve components. Check for

sufficient lubrication between the injector tappets and the rocker

arms.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: The oil passages are blocked or the engine does

B. Check for blocked oil passages. Oil passages must be clean.

Clean any oil passages that are questionable. Refer to the Disas-

sembly and Assembly for additional information.

not have proper lubrication.

Repair: Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair

eliminated the problem.

C. Inspect the engine oil filters for ferrous material.

D. Obtain an oil analysis. The analysis will contribute to a better

understanding of oil contamination and the origin of the

contamination.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

68

UENR4542

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 26, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

5. Valve Train Components

Valve train

Result: The valve train components are not damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

A. Check the valve lash. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Valve Lash Is

Excessive”.

Result: The valve train components are damaged.

B. Check for damage to valve train components. Remove the

valve cover from the suspect cylinders. Check the following items

for damage:

Repair: Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair

eliminated the problem.

1.  Camshaft

2. Valve rotocoil

3. Valve springs

4. Camshaft followers

5. Rocker shaft

6.  Bridges

7.  Pushrods

8.  Injectors

Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly for additional information.

C. Check for valves that do not move freely. Remove the cylinder

head and inspect the valves.

Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly for additional information.

6. Gear Train and Components of the Lower End

Gear train

Result: The gear train or lower end components are

damaged.

A. Inspect the gear train and lower end components.

Repair: Replace any damaged parts.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the

steps are listed.

i06302647

Engine Overspeeds

Use this procedure in order to troubleshoot an engine

overspeed or use this procedure if the following event

code is active.

Note: Some of the following codes may not be

applicable for certain applications.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

UENR4542

69

Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 27

Diagnostic Trouble Codes

Code Description

PDL Code

(code descriptions may

vary)

J1939 Code

190-0

Comments

E362 (3)

E362 (1)

Engine Overspeed

Engine Overspeed

The code requires factory passwords to be cleared.

The code is logged.

190-15

Probable Causes

•   Proceeding down steep grades (if applicable)

•   Proper operation of the turbocharger

•   Intake air

•   Starting aids that are not operating properly

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

Table 28

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Proceeding Down Steep Grades (If Applicable)

Steep grades

Result: Steep grades are the cause of the overspeed.

Repair: Control the engine speed during steep grades.

Result: Steep grades are not the cause of the overspeed.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Engaging the engine brakes on a steep grade may be

necessary.

A. The operator needs to understand the proper operation of

the machine while using the engine brakes.

Not all applications have engine brakes.

2. Proper Operation of the Turbocharger

Turbocharger

Result: The turbocharger is leaking oil into the inlet.

Repair: Repair or replace the turbocharger.

Result: The turbocharger is not leaking oil into the inlet.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

A. Check for proper operation of the turbocharger.

B. Check for any oil that may be leaking into the air inlet.

3. Intake Air

Air quality

Result: The atmosphere has combustible gases.

A. Check for combustible gases in the surrounding

Repair: Do not operate the engine in an environment with

atmosphere.

combustible gases.

B. Check for proper operation of starting aids (if equipped).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

70

UENR4542

Symptom Troubleshooting

Complete the procedure in the order in which the

steps are listed.

i06302649

Engine Shutdown Occurs

Intermittently

Note: Use this procedure only if the engine shuts

down completely during operation.

Probable Causes

•   Air shutoff

•   Active codes and logged codes

•   Unstable fuel supply

•   Electrical connections

•   Switches

•   Circuit protection

•   Engine speed/timing

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

Table 29

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Air Shutoff

Air shutoff

Result: The air shutoff system is operating properly.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

A. Check the operation of the air shutoff system.

Result: The air shutoff system is not operating properly.

Repair: Repair the air shutoff system. Refer to Troubleshoot-

ing, “Air Shutoff - Test” for troubleshooting information.

2. Active Codes and Logged Codes

Codes

Result: There are associated diagnostic trouble codes active

or logged.

A. Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may cause an

engine shutdown. Connect the electronic service tool and check

for active codes and for logged codes. Troubleshoot any codes

that are present prior to continuing with this procedure.

Repair: Troubleshoot any active or logged associated diag-

nostic trouble codes before continuing with this procedure.

Result: There are no associated diagnostic trouble codes ac-

tive or logged.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

UENR4542

71

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 29, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

3. Electrical Connections

Connectors

Result: There are suspect connectors.

A. Check for the correct installation of the ECM J1/P1 and the

J2/P2 connectors. Check for correct installation of the fuel injec-

tor connectors.

Repair: Repair connectors that are suspect or replace con-

nectors that are suspect.

Perform the “Wiggle Test” on the electronic service tool.

Result: There are no suspect connectors.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Unstable Fuel Supply

Fuel

Result: The fuel quality is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

If there is an immediate engine shutdown, troubleshoot the elec-

trical connectors before proceeding with this procedure.

Result: The fuel quality is not OK.

A. Inspect the fuel system. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing

and Adjusting, “Fuel System - Inspect” for additional information.

Repair: Replace the fuel. Verify that the repair eliminated the

problem.

Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics of the fuel.

Refer to the engine Operation and Maintenance Manual for in-

formation on improving the characteristics of the fuel during

cold-weather operation.

B. Check fuel quality. Check the fuel tank for debris or foreign

objects which may block the fuel supply.

C. Check the filtered fuel pressure while the engine is being

cranked.

5. Electrical Connections

Electrical

connectors

Result: The electrical connections are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

A. Check the power and ground connections to the ECM. Refer

to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Power Supply - Test”.

Result: The electrical connections are not OK.

Repair: Repair or replace the damaged connectors. Verify

that the repair eliminated the problem.

6. Switches

Switches

Result: The shutdown switches and wiring are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

A. Check the keyswitch input to the ECM.

B. Check any engine shutdown switches and associated wiring.

Result: The shutdown switches and wiring are not OK.

Repair: Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair

eliminated the problem.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

72

UENR4542

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 29, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

7. Circuit Protection

Circuit

Result The circuit protection device is tripped.

protection

A. Inspect the wires and connectors to all circuit protection for

the engine.

Repair: Reset the circuit breakers if the circuit breakers are

tripped. If necessary, replace fuses (if equipped). Prior to re-

turning the engine to service, determine the condition that

caused the circuit breaker to trip. Make the necessary repairs.

B. Check the device for circuit protection.

Result The circuit protection device is not tripped.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

8. Engine Speed/Timing

Speed/Timing  Result: The Speed/Timing sensor circuit is not operating

properly.

A. Thoroughly inspect the connectors for the engine speed/tim-

ing sensors.

Repair: Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair

eliminated the problem. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Speed/

Timing `- Test”

B. Crank the engine, if the engine starts and no speed timing co-

des are logged, the speed timing circuit is operating properly.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the

steps are listed.

i06255977

Engine Stalls at Low RPM

Note: Refer to Troubleshooting, “Service Tool

Features” for information about service features.

Probable Causes

•   Active codes and logged codes

•   Incorrect parameters

•   Air shut-off system

•   Low-pressure fuel system

•   Fuel injectors

•   Engine accessories

•   Parasitic loads

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

UENR4542

73

Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 30

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Active Codes and Logged Codes

Diagnostic

code

Result: A code is active or logged.

A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool and

the Electronic Control Module (ECM) . Refer to Troubleshooting,

“Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary.

Repair: Troubleshoot any active codes before continuing

with this procedure.

Result: A code is not active or logged.

B. Determine if a code is active or logged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Incorrect Parameters

Parameters

Result: The correct parameters are being used.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

A. Use the electronic service tool to verify that the correct parame-

ters are being used. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Configuration Pa-

rameters” for additional information.

Result: The correct parameters are not being used.

Repair: Configure the correct parameters.

3. Air Shutoff System (if equipped)

Air shutoff

Result: The air shutoff is operating correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

A. Check for proper operation of the air shutoff system. Refer to

Troubleshooting, “Air Shutoff - Test”.

Result: The air shutoff is not operating correctly.

Repair: Make the necessary repairs. Verify the repair.

4. Low Pressure Fuel System

Fuel system

Result: The fuel system is operating properly.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

A. Visually check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Do not rely on the

fuel gauge only.

Result: The fuel system is not operating properly.

B. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in the full OPEN

position.

Repair: Make the necessary repairs. Verify that the re-

pair eliminates the problem.

C. Inspect the fuel system. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and

Adjusting, “Fuel System - Inspect” for additional information.

Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics of the fuel. Refer

to the engines Operation and Maintenance Manual for information

on improving the characteristics of the fuel during cold-weather

operation.

D. Check fuel quality. Check the fuel tank for debris or foreign ob-

jects which may block the fuel supply.

E. Check the filtered fuel pressure while the engine is being

cranked. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Fuel Pressure Is Low” for the

proper testing procedure.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

74

UENR4542

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 30, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

5. Fuel Injectors

Diagnostic Test  Result: The test was successful.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

If service has been performed on the engine fuel system recently,

verify that the injector trim files are correct. Use the electronic serv-

ice tool to check that the injector trim files are correct for the injec-

tors that are installed on the engine.

Result: The test was not successful.

Repair: Diagnose the problem and then repair the

A. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” on the electronic service tool

in order to determine if all of the injector solenoids are being ener-

gized by the ECM.

problem.

Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes.

Verify that the repair eliminated the problem.

B. Access the “Cylinder Cutout Test” in the “Diagnostic Tests”  under

the “Diagnostics”  menu.

C. Perform the “Automatic Cylinder Cutout Test” on the electronic

service tool.

6. Engine Accessories

Engine

Result: An engine accessory is creating an excessive

accessories

load.

A. Inspect any engine accessories and the transmission (if

applicable).

Repair: Repair the engine accessory.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the

steps are listed.

Recommended Actions

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of

probability. Complete the procedures in order.

i06302669

Engine Top Speed Is Not

Obtained

Note: If this fault occurs only under load, refer to

Troubleshooting, “Acceleration Is Poor or Throttle

Response Is Poor”.

Note: Refer to Troubleshooting, “Service Tool

Features” for information about service features.

Probable Causes

•   Active codes and logged codes

•   Incorrect parameters

•   Accessory and/or parasitic loads

•   Incorrect flash file

•   Restriction in the air inlet and exhaust system

•   Proper operation of the turbocharger

•   Low-pressure fuel system

•   Fuel injectors

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

UENR4542

75

Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 31

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

1. Active Codes and Logged Codes

Codes

Result: There are active codes.

A. Establish communication between the electronic service

tool and the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Refer to Trou-

bleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary.

Repair: Troubleshoot any active codes before continuing with

this procedure.

Result: There are no active codes.

B. Check for active diagnostic codes.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Incorrect Parameters

Parameters

Result: The parameters are configured correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

A. Use the electronic service tool to verify that the correct en-

gine parameters are being used. Refer to Troubleshooting,

“Configuration Parameters” for additional information.

Result: The parameters are not configured correctly.

Repair: Correctly configure the parameters.

Verify that the repair eliminated the problem.

B. Verify that all of the parameters for parasitic loads are

correct.

3. Accessory and/or Parasitic Loads

Parasitic loads     Result: There is not an excessive load on the engine.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

A. Check all accessory equipment for problems that may cre-

ate excessive load on the engine.

Result: There is an excessive load on the engine.

Repair: Diagnose the problem and then repair the problem.

Verify that the repair eliminated the problem.

B. Check for any excess parasitic load on the engine.

4. Incorrect Flash File

Flash file

Result: The latest flash file is installed in the ECM.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

A. Verify that the latest flash file is installed in the Electronic

Control Module (ECM). Refer to Troubleshooting, “ECM Soft-

ware - Install” for the proper procedure.

Result: The latest flash file is not installed in the ECM.

Repair: Install the latest flash file. Verify that the repair elimi-

nated the problem.

5. Restriction in the Air Inlet and Exhaust System

Restrictions

Result: There are restrictions in the air inlet or exhaust

system.

A. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped. Clean

plugged air filters or replace plugged air filters. Refer to the

Operation and Maintenance Manual.

Repair: Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair

eliminated the problem.

B. Check the air inlet and exhaust system for restrictions

Result: There are no restrictions in the air inlet or exhaust

and/or leaks.

system.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


 

76

UENR4542

Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 31, contd)

Troubleshooting Test Steps

Values

Results

6. Proper Operation of the Turbocharger

Turbocharger

Result: The turbocharger is operating properly.

A. Check for proper operation of the turbocharger.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: The turbocharger is not operating properly.

Repair: Repair or replace the turbocharger. Verify that the re-

pair eliminated the problem.

7. Low Pressure Fuel System

Fuel system

Result: The fuel system is operating properly.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

A. Visually check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Do not rely on

the fuel gauge only.

Result: The fuel system is not operating properly.

B. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in the full

OPEN position.

Repair: Make the necessary repairs. Verify that the repair

eliminates the problem.

C. Inspect the fuel system. Refer to Systems Operation/Test-

ing and Adjusting, “Fuel System - Inspect” for additional

information.

Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics of the fuel.

Refer to the engines Operation and Maintenance Manual for

information on improving the characteristics of the fuel during

cold-weather operation.

D. Check fuel quality. Check the fuel tank for debris or foreign

objects which may block the fuel supply.

E. Check the filtered fuel pressure while the engine is being

cranked. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Fuel Pressure Is Low”

for the proper testing procedure.

8. Fuel Injectors

Injector Solenoid  Result: The test was successful.

Test or Cylinder

If service has been performed on the engine fuel system re-   Cutout Test

cently, verify that the injector trim files are correct. Use the

electronic service tool to check that the injector trim files are

correct for the injectors that are installed on the engine.

Return the unit to service.

Result: The test was not successful.

Repair: Diagnose the problem and then repair the problem.

Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes.

Verify that the repair eliminated the problem.

A. Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test” on the electronic serv-

ice tool in order to determine if all of the injector solenoids are

being energized by the ECM.

B. Access the “Cylinder Cutout Test” in the “Diagnostic Tests”

under the “Diagnostics”  menu.

C. Perform the “Automatic Cylinder Cutout Test” on the elec-

tronic service tool.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE

 

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