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珀金斯Perkins1600发动机测试调整

详细描述

Systems Operation

Testing and Adjusting

1600 Series Industrial Engine

XGA (Engine)

XGB (Engine)

XGD (Engine)

XGE (Engine)

XGF (Engine)

XGH (Engine)

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

Important Safety Information

Most  accidents    tha t involve  produc  t  op eration,  ma intena nc e and   repair   are  caus  ed  by  failure  to

ob serve  basic   safety   rules  or  precautions  .  An accident    can   often  be  avoided   by  recog nizing  pote ntially

ha za rdous  situations   before   an  accident    oc curs . A person    mus t be  alert   to pote ntial  ha za rds.  This

person   should   also  ha ve  the  ne cessary   training,  skills  and   tools  to perform   the se  func tions properly.

Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair  of this product can be dangerous and

could result in injury  or death.

Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this  product, until you have

read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.

Sa fety precautions     and  warning s  are   provided   in this  ma nua l and   on  the  produc t.  If the se  ha za rd

warning s  are  not  he eded,   bod ily injury  or death   could   oc cur to  you  or to  othe r persons  .

The  ha za rds are   identified   by  the  “Safety  Alert  Symb ol”  and  followed  by  a  “Signa l  Word” suc h  as

“DANGER”, “WARNING”  or “CAUTION”.  The Sa fety  Alert  “WARNING” label  is  shown   below.

The  me aning  of  this safety   alert   symb ol is  as  follows:

Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is  Involved.

The  me ssage   tha t appears     und er the   warning  explains    the  ha za rd and   can  be   either  written  or

pictorially   presente  d.

Op erations  tha t  ma y caus e  produc  t dama  ge  are  identified   by  “NOTICE” labels   on  the  produc  t and   in

this  pub lication.

Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The

warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,

work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,

you must satisfy yourself that it is safe  for you and for others. You should also ensure that the

product will not be damaged or be  made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or

repair procedures that you choose.

The  informa tion, specifications   ,  and  illustrations   in  this  pub lication  are   on the  basis    of informa tion tha t

was  available    at  the  time  tha t the  pub lication   was  written.   The  specifications   , torque  s,  pressure  s,

me asure me nts , adjustme  nts , illustrations ,  and  othe r  items  can  cha  ng e at  any  time.  These  cha ng es  can

affect   the  service   tha t is given   to the  produc  t.  Ob tain the  comp  lete  and  mos t current   informa tion before

you  start any   job. Pe  rkins  dealers   or   Pe rkins  distributors     ha ve  the  mos t current   informa tion  available.

When  replacement  parts  are  required  for  this

product Perkins recommends using Perkins

 replacement  parts.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-

ture failures, product damage, personal injury or

death.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

KENR8772

3

Table of  Contents

Table of Contents

Crankshaft Thrust - Measure ................................ 81

Gear Group - Inspect ............................................ 82

Vibration Damper - Check ....................................  83

Systems Operation Section

Electrical System

Alternator - Test ....................................................  85

Battery - Test ......................................................... 86

Charging System - Test ........................................  86

Electric Starting System - Test .............................. 86

V-Belt - Test ..........................................................  87

General Information ................................................ 4

Glossary of Electronic Control Terms .....................  7

Electronic Control System Components ................ 11

Power Sources .....................................................  26

Fuel System  ......................................................... 28

Air Inlet and Exhaust System ...............................  37

Lubrication System  ..............................................  41

Cooling System  .................................................... 43

Basic Engine ......................................................... 46

Electrical System  .................................................  49

Index Section

Index .....................................................................  88

Testing and Adjusting Section

Fuel System

Fuel System - Inspect ........................................... 52

Air in Fuel - Test .................................................... 52

Finding Top Center Position for No. 1 Piston  ....... 53

Fuel Quality - Test ................................................. 53

Fuel System - Prime .............................................  54

Fuel System Pressure - Test ................................. 55

Gear Group (Front) - Time .................................... 56

Air Inlet and  Exhaust System

Air Inlet and Exhaust System - Inspect ................. 58

Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 58

Exhaust Temperature - Test .................................. 61

Exhaust Cooler (NRS) - Test (If Equipped) ........... 61

Engine Crankcase Pressure (Blowby) - Test ........ 62

Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ......................  62

Valve Depth - Inspect ............................................ 64

Valve Guide - Inspect ............................................ 64

Lubrication System

Engine Oil Pressure - Test .................................... 65

Engine Oil Pump - Inspect .................................... 65

Excessive Bearing Wear - Inspect ........................ 66

Excessive Engine Oil Consumption - Inspect ....... 66

Increased Engine Oil Temperature - Inspect ........  67

Cooling System

Cooling System - Check (Overheating) ................  68

Cooling System - Inspect ...................................... 69

Cooling System - Test ........................................... 70

Engine Oil Cooler - Inspect ................................... 72

Water Temperature Regulator - Test ..................... 74

Water Pump - Inspect ...........................................  74

Basic Engine

Piston Ring Groove - Inspect ................................ 75

Connecting Rod - Inspect .....................................  76

Connecting Rod Bearings - Inspect ...................... 77

Main Bearings - Inspect ........................................ 77

Cylinder Block - Inspect ........................................ 77

Cylinder Head - Inspect ........................................  77

Cylinder Liner Projection - Inspect ........................ 78

Flywheel - Inspect ................................................. 79

Flywheel Housing - Inspect ................................... 80

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

4

Systems Operation  Section

KENR8772

Systems Operation Section

i04031010

General Information

The following model views show the 1600  Series

Industrial Engine features.  Due to individual

applications, your engine may appear different from

the illustrations.

g02757356

Illustration 1

Typical example of the right side  of the 1600D engine

(1) Rear lifting eye

(2) Front lifting eye

(3) Alternator

(5) Belt tensioner

(6) Coolant pump

(7) Coolant intake connection

(8) Crankcase breather

(9) Oil cooler

(10) Oil filter

(11) Turbocharger

(12) Exhaust gas cooler (NRS)

(4) Drive belt

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

KENR8772

5

Systems Operation  Section

g02430477

Illustration 2

Typical example of the left  side of the 1600D engine

(13) Valve mechanism cover

(14) Air cleaner

(17) Oil filler and oil gauge

(18) Oil drain plug

(21) Secondary fuel filter

(22) Hand priming pump

(15) Flywheel housing

(16) Flywheel

(19) Electronic Control Module (ECM)

(20) High-pressure oil pump

(23) Primary fuel filter

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

6

Systems Operation  Section

KENR8772

g02794993

Illustration 3

Typical example of the 1600A  engine

The 1600 Series diesel  engine is electronically

controlled. The 1600  Series engine uses an

Electronic Control Module (ECM)  that receives

signals from the engine sensors in order to control

the electronic unit injectors.

The steel pistons  have a specially designed

combustion chamber in the top of the piston in order

to achieve clean exhaust emissions.

The pistons have two compression rings and an oil

control ring.

The fuel system is electro-hydraulic. The  system

includes an under-valve-cover  high-pressure

oil manifold, electronic  unit injectors, and  a

high-pressure oil pump. The electronic unit injectors

are installed in  the cylinder head, under  the

high-pressure oil manifold.

A piston and a  connecting rod are matched to

each cylinder. The piston height  is controlled by

the distance between the center of  the large end

bearing and the center of the small end bearing of

the connecting rod.

The six cylinders are arranged in-line. The cylinder

head assembly has two inlet valves and two exhaust

valves for each cylinder. The ports for the exhaust

valves are on the right side of the cylinder head. The

ports for the inlet valves are on the left side  of the

cylinder head. Each cylinder valve has a single valve

spring.

The crankshaft has seven main bearing journals. End

play is controlled by thrust washers which are located

on both sides of the number 7 upper main bearing.

Each cylinder has a piston cooling jet that is installed

in the cylinder block. The piston cooling jet sprays

engine oil onto the gallery of the piston in order to

cool the piston.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

KENR8772

7

Systems Operation  Section

The timing case is made of aluminum. The timing

gears are stamped with timing marks  in order to

ensure the correct assembly of the  gears. When

the number 1 piston is at the top center position of

the compression stroke, the marked teeth on  the

idler gears will align with the marks that are on the

camshaft gear, and the gear on the crankshaft. There

are no timing marks on the rear face of  the timing

case.

i04201673

Glossary of Electronic Control

Terms

Active Diagnostic Code  – An active diagnostic

code alerts the operator or the service technician that

an electronic system malfunction is currently present.

Refer to the term “Diagnostic Trouble Code” in this

glossary.

The crankshaft gear turns the lower idler gear which

then turns the following gears:

•  the upper idler gear

Air-To-Air Aftercooler – An air-to-air aftercooler is a

device that is used on turbocharged engines in order

to cool inlet air that has undergone compression. The

inlet air is cooled after the inlet air passes through

the turbocharger. The inlet air is passed through an

aftercooler (heat exchanger) that uses ambient air for

cooling. The inlet air that has been cooled advances

to the inlet manifold.

•  the camshaft gear

•  the spline gear for the engine oil pump

•  the gear for the high-pressure oil pump

•  the accessory drive gear

Adaptive Trim  – This is a software process that

is performed in the  ECM that optimizes engine

performance by automatically compensating for

degradation of injector components.

The camshaft runs at half the rpm of the crankshaft.

The high-pressure oil pump runs at half the rpm as

the crankshaft.

The high-pressure oil pump that is installed on the left

side of the engine is gear-driven from the timing case.

The low-pressure fuel transfer pump is mounted on

the high-pressure oil pump.

Alternating Current (AC)  – Alternating current is an

electric current that reverses direction at a regular

interval that is reoccurring.

Before Top Center (BTC)  – BTC is the 180 degrees

of crankshaft rotation before the piston reaches the

top center position in the normal direction of rotation.

The low-pressure fuel transfer pump draws fuel from

the fuel tank across a suction strainer to the primary

fuel filter.

Inlet Manifold Pressure  – The difference between

the turbocharger outlet pressure and atmospheric

pressure is commonly referred to as inlet manifold

pressure. The sensor for  the inlet manifold air

pressure measures the amount of boost.

The fuel flows from the primary  fuel filter into the

fuel rail. The fuel rail is an integral part of  the inlet

manifold. The fuel flows  into six cylinder head

passages to each electronic unit injector.

When the electronic unit injectors are activated, fuel

flows from the fuel passages through the inlet ports

of the electronic unit injector and inside the electronic

unit injectors.

Breakout Harness  – The breakout harness is a

test harness that is designed to  connect into the

engine harness. This connection allows a normal

circuit operation and the connection simultaneously

provides a Breakout T  in order to measure the

signals.

The high-pressure oil pump is not serviceable. The

engine uses speed sensors  and the Electronic

Control Module to control the engine speed.

Bypass Circuit  – A bypass circuit is a circuit that is

used as a substitute circuit for an existing circuit. A

bypass circuit is typically used as a test circuit.

For the specifications for the 1600 Series  engine,

refer to Specifications, “Engine Design”.

CAN Data Link  – The CAN Data Link is used for

communication with other microprocessor-based

devices.

Code  – Refer to “Diagnostic Code” or “Event Code”.

Cold Mode  – Cold mode is a mode for cold starting

and for cold engine operation. This mode is used for

engine protection, reduced smoke emissions and

faster warm-up time.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

8

Systems Operation  Section

KENR8772

Communication Adapter  Tool  –  The

communication adapter provides a communication

link between the ECM and the Electronic  Service

Tool.

Engine Control Module (ECM)  – The ECM is the

control computer of the engine. The ECM provides

power to the electronics. The ECM monitors data that

is input from the sensors of the engine.  The ECM

acts as a governor in order to control the speed and

the power of the engine.

Component Identifier (CID)  – The CID is a number

that identifies the specific component of the electronic

control system that has experienced a diagnostic

code.

Electronic Service Tool   – The electronic service

tool is used for diagnosing various electronic controls.

Coolant Temperature Sensor  – The coolant

temperature sensor detects the  engine coolant

temperature for all normal operating conditions and

for engine monitoring.

Engine Monitoring  – Engine Monitoring is the part

of the electronic engine control that monitors  the

sensors. This also warns the operator of detected

problems.

Customer Specified Parameters  – A customer

specified parameter is a  parameter that can be

changed in the ECM with the Electronic Service Tool.

A customer specified parameter's value is  set by

the customer. These parameters are protected by

customer passwords.

Engine Oil Pressure Sensor  – The engine oil

pressure sensor measures engine oil pressure. The

sensor sends an electronic signal to the ECM that is

dependent on the engine oil pressure.

Engine Speed/Timing Sensor  – An  engine

speed/timing sensor is a Hall effect sensor. The ECM

interprets this signal as the crankshaft position and

the engine speed. Two sensors are used to provide

the speed and timing signals to the ECM. The primary

sensor is associated with the crankshaft  and the

secondary sensor is associated with the camshaft.

Data Link – The Data Link is used for communication

with other microprocessor-based devices.

Derate  – Certain engine conditions will generate

event codes. Also, engine derates may be applied.

The map for the engine derate is programmed into

the ECM software. The derate can be one or more

of three types: reduction of rated power, reduction of

rated engine speed, and reduction of rated machine

speed for OEM products.

Estimated Dynamic Timing  – Estimated dynamic

timing is the estimate of the actual injection timing

that is calculated by the ECM.

Event Code  – An event code may be  activated

in order to indicate an abnormal engine operating

condition. These codes usually indicate a mechanical

problem instead of an electrical system problem.

Desired Engine Speed  – The desired engine speed

is input to the electronic governor within the ECM.

The electronic governor uses the signal  from the

throttle position sensor, the engine  speed/timing

sensor, and other sensors in order to determine the

desired engine speed.

Failure Mode Identifier (FMI)  – This identifier

indicates the type of failure that is associated with

the component. The FMI has been adopted from the

SAE practice of J1587 diagnostics. The FMI follows

the parameter identifier (PID) in the descriptions of

the fault code. The descriptions of the FMIs are in

the following list.

Diagnostic Trouble Code  – A diagnostic trouble

code is sometimes referred to as a fault code. These

codes indicate an electronic system malfunction.

Diagnostic Lamp  – A diagnostic lamp is sometimes

called the check engine light. The diagnostic lamp

is used to warn the operator of the presence of an

active diagnostic code. The diagnostic lamps are

red and orange. The lamp may not be  included in

all applications.

0  – The data is valid but the data is above the normal

operational range.

1  – The data is valid but the data is below the normal

operational range.

Direct Current (DC)  – Direct current is the type of

current that flows consistently in only one direction.

2  – The data is erratic, intermittent, or incorrect.

3  – The voltage is above normal or the voltage is

Duty Cycle  – See Pulse Width Modulation.

shorted high.

Electronic Engine Control  – The  electronic

engine control is a  complete electronic system.

The electronic engine control monitors the engine

operation under all conditions. The electronic engine

control also controls the engine operation under all

conditions.

4  – The voltage is below normal or the voltage is

shorted low.

5  – The current is below normal or the circuit is open.

6  – The current is above normal or the  circuit is

grounded.

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KENR8772

9

Systems Operation  Section

7  – The mechanical system is  not responding

properly.

Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor  – The Intake

Manifold Pressure Sensor measures the pressure

in the intake manifold. The pressure in the  intake

manifold may be different to the pressure  outside

the engine (atmospheric pressure). The difference

in pressure may be caused  by an increase in air

pressure by a turbocharger (if equipped).

8  – There is an abnormal frequency, an abnormal

pulse width, or an abnormal time period.

9  – There has been an abnormal update.

10  – There is an abnormal rate of change.

11  – The failure mode is not identifiable.

12  – The device or the component is damaged.

J1939 CAN Data Link  – Logged diagnostic codes

are codes which are stored in the memory. These

codes are meant to  be an indicator of possible

causes for intermittent  problems. Refer to the

term “Diagnostic Code” in this glossary  for more

information.

Flash File  – This file is  software that is inside

the ECM. The  file contains all the instructions

(software) for the ECM and  the file contains the

performance maps for a specific engine. The file may

be reprogrammed through flash programming.

NOx Reduction System  – The NOx Reduction

System recycles a portion of the exhaust gases back

into the inlet air in order to reduce the formation of

oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the combustion process.

The recycled exhaust gas passes through a cooler

before being introduced into the inlet air.

Flash Programming  – Flash programming is the

method of programming or updating an ECM with an

electronic service tool over the data link.

OEM  – OEM is an abbreviation for the  Original

Equipment Manufacturer. This is the manufacturer of

the machine or the vehicle that uses the engine.

Flash Memory  – See Programmable Software.

Fuel Ratio Control (FRC)  – The FRC is a limit that

is based on the control of the fuel to the air ratio. The

FRC is used for emission control. When the  ECM

senses a higher turbocharger outlet pressure, the

ECM increases the limit for the FRC in order to allow

more fuel into the cylinders.

Open Circuit  – An open circuit is a condition that is

caused by an open switch, or by an electrical wire

or a connection that is broken. When this condition

exists, the signal or the supply voltage can no longer

reach the intended destination.

Parameter  – A parameter is a value or a limit that

is programmable. This helps  determine specific

characteristics or behaviors of the engine.

Fuel Pump  – See “Fuel Injection Pump”.

Fuel Injection Pump  – This item is sometimes

referred to as the Fuel Pump. This is a device that

supplies fuel under pressure to the injectors.

Parameter Identifier (PID)  – A PID is a numerical

code that contains two  digits or three digits. A

numerical code is assigned to each component. The

numerical code identifies data via the data link to the

ECM.

Harness  – The harness is the bundle of  wiring

(loom) that connects all components of the electronic

system.

Password  – A password is a group of  numeric

characters or a group of alphanumeric characters

that is designed to restrict access to parameters. The

electronic system requires correct passwords in order

to change some parameters (Factory Passwords).

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Factory Passwords” for

more information.

Hertz (Hz)  – Hertz is the measure of frequency in

cycles per second.

Inlet Manifold Air Temperature Sensor  –  The

inlet manifold air temperature sensor detects the

air temperature in the  inlet manifold. The ECM

monitors the air temperature and other data in the

inlet manifold in order to adjust injection timing and

other performance functions.

Programmable Software  – The software  is

programmed into the ECM. The software contains

all the instructions (software) for the ECM and the

software contains the performance  maps for a

specific engine. The software may be reprogrammed

through flash programming.

Integrated Electronic Controls  – The engine is

designed with the electronic controls as a necessary

part of the system.  The engine will not operate

without the electronic controls.

Power Cycling  – Power cycling refers to the action

of cycling the keyswitch from any position to the OFF

position, and to the START/RUN position.

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10

KENR8772

Systems Operation  Section

Primary Speed/Timing Sensor  – This sensor

determines the position of the  crankshaft during

engine operation. If  the primary speed/timing

sensor fails during engine operation, the secondary

speed/timing sensor is used to provide the signal.

Short Circuit  – A short circuit is a condition that has

an electrical circuit that is inadvertently connected to

an undesirable point. An example of a short circuit

is a wire which rubs against  a vehicle frame and

this rubbing eventually wears off the wire insulation.

Electrical contact with the frame is made and a short

circuit results.

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)  – The PWM is a

signal that consists of pulses that  are of variable

width. These pulses occur at fixed intervals. The ratio

of “TIME ON” versus total “TIME OFF” can be varied.

This ratio is also referred to as a duty cycle.

Signal  – The signal is a voltage or a waveform that

is used in order to transmit information typically from

a sensor to the ECM.

Supply Voltage – The supply voltage is a continuous

voltage that is supplied to a component in order to

provide the electrical power that is required for the

component to operate. The power may be generated

by the ECM or the power may be battery voltage that

is supplied by the engine wiring.

System Configuration Parameters  –  System

configuration parameters are parameters that affect

emissions and/or operating characteristics of the

engine.

“T” Harness  – This harness is a test harness that

is designed to permit normal circuit operation and

the measurement of the voltage  simultaneously.

Typically, the harness is inserted between the two

ends of a connector.

g00284479

Illustration 4

Rated Fuel Limit  – This is a limit that is based on

the power rating of the engine and on the engine rpm.

The Rated Fuel Limit enables the engine power and

torque outputs to conform to the power and torque

curves of a specific engine model. These limits are in

the flash file and these limits cannot be changed.

Throttle Position  – The throttle position is  the

interpretation by the ECM of  the signal from the

throttle position sensor or the throttle switch.

Throttle Position Sensor  – The throttle position

sensor is an electronic sensor that is connected to an

accelerator pedal or a hand lever. This sensor sends

a signal to the ECM that is used to calculate desired

engine speed.

Reference Voltage  – Reference voltage is  a

regulated voltage and a  steady voltage that is

supplied by the ECM to  a sensor. The reference

voltage is used by the sensor to generate a signal

voltage.

Timing Calibration  – The timing calibration is the

adjustment of an electrical signal. This adjustment is

made in order to correct the timing error between the

camshaft and the engine speed/timing sensors or

between the crankshaft and the engine speed/timing

sensors.

Relay  – A relay is an electromechanical switch. A

flow of electricity in one circuit is used to control the

flow of electricity in another circuit. A small current or

voltage is applied to a relay in order to switch a much

larger current or voltage.

Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor  – This sensor

determines the position of the camshaft during engine

operation. If the primary speed/timing sensor fails

during engine operation, the secondary speed/timing

sensor is used to provide the signal.

Top Center Position – The top center position refers

to the crankshaft position when the engine  piston

position is at the highest point of travel. The engine

must be turned in the normal direction of rotation in

order to reach this point.

Sensor  – A sensor is used to detect a change in

the pressure, in the temperature, or in mechanical

movement. When any of these changes are detected,

a sensor converts the change into an electrical signal.

Total Tattletale  – The total tattletale is the total

number of changes to all the parameters that  are

stored in the ECM.

Wait To Start Lamp  – This is a lamp that is included

in the cold starting aid circuit in order to indicate when

the wait to start period has expired. The grid heater

has not deactivated at this point in time.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

KENR8772

11

Systems Operation  Section

Wastegate  – This is a device in a turbocharged

engine that controls the maximum boost pressure

that is provided to the inlet manifold.

i04112658

Electronic Control System

Components

Introduction

The 1600 Series industrial engine is designed  for

electronic control. The engine has  an Electronic

Control Module (ECM), a high-pressure oil pump

and electronic unit injectors. All of these items are

electronically controlled. There are also a number

of engine sensors. The ECM controls  the engine

operating parameters through the software within

the ECM and the inputs from the various sensors.

The software contains parameters that control the

engine operation. The parameters include all of the

operating maps and customer-selected parameters.

The electronic control system has  the following

components:

•  ECM

•  Pressure sensors

•  Temperature sensors

•  Crankshaft position sensor

•  Camshaft position sensor

•  Electronic unit injectors

•  Valve for the NOx Reduction System  (NRS) (if

equipped)

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12

KENR8772

Systems Operation  Section

g02734078

Illustration 5

Typical example

(1) Exhaust cooler for the NOx Reduction

System (NRS) (if equipped)

(2) Valve for the  NOx Reduction System

(NRS) (if equipped)

(9) Exhaust backpressure sensor (EBP)

(10) Engine coolant temperature  sensor

(ECT)

(11) Crankshaft position sensor (CKP)

(12) Engine

(19) Fuel strainer

(20) Injection control pressure sensor (ICP)

(21) Engine oil pressure sensor (EOP)

(22) Electronic control module (ECM)

(23) High-pressure oil pump

(3) Muffler

(4) Air cleaner

(5) Inlet air temperature sensor (IAT)

(6) Turbocharger

(7) Exhaust gas valve for the NOx Reduction

System (NRS) (if equipped)

(8) Charge air cooler (CAC)

(13) Electronic unit injectors

(14) Low-pressure fuel pump

(15) Engine fuel pressure sensor (EFP)

(16) Inlet air heater control (IAHC)

(17) Camshaft position sensor (CMP)

(18) Fuel filter

(24) Injector drive module (IDM)

(25) Manifold air temperature sensor (MAT)

(26) Manifold air pressure sensor (MAP)

(27) Fuel tank

Sensor Locations for the Engine

The illustrations in this  section show the typical

locations of the sensors for the  industrial engine.

Specific engines may appear  different from the

illustration due to differences in applications.

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Systems Operation  Section

g02974017

Illustration 6

Typical example

(1) Valve for the  NOx Reduction System

(NRS)

(2) Inlet air temperature sensor

(3) Inlet manifold air pressure sensor

(4) Water in fuel sensor

(5) Engine oil temperature sensor

(6) Injection pressure regulator

(7) Engine fuel pressure sensor

(8) Air inlet heater

(10) Crankshaft position sensor

(11) Coolant jacket heater

(12) Engine oil pressure sensor

(9) Control module

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Systems Operation  Section

g02976178

Illustration 7

Typical example

(13) Injection control  pressure sensor

(internal)

(14) Exhaust back pressure sensor

(15) Engine coolant temperature sensor

(16) Camshaft position sensor

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Systems Operation  Section

g02732035

Illustration 8

Typical example

(1) Valve for the  NOx Reduction System

(NRS)

(2) Inlet air temperature sensor

(3) Inlet manifold air pressure sensor

(4) Water in fuel sensor

(5) Engine oil temperature sensor

(6) Injection pressure regulator

(7) Engine fuel pressure sensor

(8) Air inlet heater

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KENR8772

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g02732036

Illustration 9

Typical example

(9) Control module

(A) Driver for the NRS valve

(B) Injection Drive Module (IDM)

(C) High current relay

(D) Electronic Control Module (ECM)

g02976197

Illustration 10

Typical example

(10) Crankshaft position sensor

(11) Coolant jacket heater

(12) Engine oil pressure sensor

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Systems Operation  Section

g02976216

Illustration 11

Typical example

(13) Injection control pressure sensor

(14) Exhaust back pressure sensor

(15) Coolant temperature sensor

(16) Camshaft position sensor

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g02976217

Illustration 12

Typical example

(G) Injection control pressure connection

(H) Connector for injectors 1 and injector 2

(I) Connector for injectors 3 and injector 4

(J) Connector for injectors 5 and injector 6

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Systems Operation  Section

Wiring Harness

g02740876

Illustration 13

(1) Coolant temperature

(2) Exhaust back pressure

(3) NRS

(4) Injection control

(5) Injectors 1 and 2

(6) Water in fuel

(9) Inlet heater terminal

(10) Injectors 3 and 4

(11) Injectors 5 and 6

(12) Plug for inlet heater

(13) Relay

(14) Crankshaft position

(15) Injector drive connections

(16) ECM

(17) NRS drive

(18) Customer connection

(19) Low-pressure fuel

(20) Engine oil pressure

(21) Injection pressure regulator

(22) Oil temperature

(7) Inlet manifold air pressure

(8) Inlet air temperature

(23) Camshaft position connection

ECM

Reference Voltage (VREF)

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) monitors and

controls engine performance to ensure maximum

performance and adherence to emissions standards.

The ECM supplies a 5 V VREF signal to input sensors

in the electronic control system. By comparing the 5

V VREF signal sent to the sensors with the respective

returned signals, the ECM determines pressures,

positions, and other variables important to engine

and vehicle functions.

The ECM performs the following functions:

•  Provide Reference Voltage (VREF)

•  Condition input signals

The ECM supplies two independent circuits for VREF:

•  VREF (A) supplies 5 V to the engine sensors

•  VREF (B) supplies 5 V to the OEM wiring harness

•  Process and stores control strategies

•  Control actuators

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Systems Operation  Section

Signal Conditioner

Random Access Memory (RAM)

The signal conditioner in the internal microprocessor

converts analog signals to digital signals, squares up

sine wave signals, or amplifies low intensity signals

to a level that the ECM microprocessor can process.

RAM stores temporary information for current engine

conditions. Temporary information in RAM is  lost

when the ignition switch is turned to OFF or  when

ECM power is interrupted. RAM information includes

the following:

Microprocessor

•  Engine temperature

•  Engine rpm

The ECM  microprocessor stores operating

instructions (control strategies) and value  tables

(calibration parameters). The ECM compares stored

instructions and values with conditioned input values

to determine the correct  strategy for all engine

operations.

•  Accelerator pedal position

Actuator Control

Continuous calculations in  the ECM occur at

two different levels or  speeds: Foreground and

Background.

The ECM controls the  actuators by applying a

low-level signal (low side driver) or a high-level signal

(high side driver). When switched on, both drivers

complete a ground or power circuit to an actuator.

•  Foreground calculations  are faster than

background calculations and are normally more

critical for engine operation. Engine speed control

is an example.

Actuators are controlled in one of the following ways,

depending upon type of actuator:

•  Duty cycle (percent time on/off)

•  Switched on or off

•  Background calculations are normally variables

that change at slower rates. Engine temperature

is an example.

•  CAN messages

Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) are set  by the

microprocessor, if inputs or conditions do not comply

with expected values.

Actuators

The ECM controls engine operation with the following:

•  Valve for the NOx Reduction System (NRS)

•  Intake Air Heater (IAH) relay

•  Injection timing

Diagnostic strategies are also programmed into the

ECM. Some strategies monitor inputs continuously

and command the necessary outputs  for correct

performance of the engine.

Microprocessor Memory

The ECM microprocessor includes  Read Only

Memory (ROM) and Random Access Memory (RAM).

•  Injection pressure regulation valve

Valve for the NOx  Reduction System

(NRS) (if equipped)

Read Only Memory (ROM)

ROM stores permanent information for calibration

tables and operating strategies. Permanently stored

information cannot be changed or lost  by turning

the ignition switch OFF  or when ECM power is

interrupted. ROM includes the following:

The valve for the NOx Reduction  System (NRS)

controls the flow of  exhaust gases to the intake

manifold.

The valve for the NOx Reduction  System (NRS)

receives the desired valve position from the ECM

for the reduction of NOx.  The valve for the NOx

Reduction System (NRS) provides feedback to the

ECM on the valve position.

•  Application configuration, modes of operation, and

options

•  Engine Family Rating Code (EFRC)

•  Engine warning and protection modes

The valve for the NOx Reduction  System (NRS)

constantly monitors the valve position.  When an

NOx c, ontrol error is detected, the valve for the NOx

Reduction System (NRS) sends a message to the

ECM and a DTC is set.

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Systems Operation  Section

Intake Air Heater (IAH) Relay

The Intake Air Heater  (IAH) system warms the

incoming air supply prior to  cranking to aid cold

engine starting.

The ECM is programmed  to energize the IAH

elements through the IAH relay while  monitoring

certain programmed conditions for engine coolant

temperature, engine oil temperature, and atmospheric

pressure.

The ECM activates  the IAH relay. The  relay

delivers VBAT to the  heater elements for a set

time, depending on engine coolant temperature and

altitude. The ground circuit is supplied directly from

the battery ground at all times.

Engine Sensors

Thermistor Sensors

A thermistor sensor varies electrical resistance with

changes in temperature. Resistance in the thermistor

decreases as temperature increases, and increases

as temperature decreases. Thermistors  have a

resistor that limits current in the ECM to a voltage

signal matched with a temperature value.

The top half of the  voltage divider is the current

limiting resistor inside the ECM. A thermistor sensor

has two electrical connectors, signal  return and

ground. The output of  a thermistor sensor is a

nonlinear analog signal.

Thermistor type sensors include the following:

•  Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor

•  Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) sensor

•  Inlet Air Temperature (IAT) sensor

•  Manifold Air Temperature (MAT) sensor

g02730803

Illustration 14

A typical example of a  schematic for the temperature sensors

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KENR8772

Systems Operation  Section

Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor

•  Manifold Air Pressure (MAP) sensor

The ECM monitors the ECT  signal and uses this

information for the instrument panel temperature

gauge, coolant compensation, Engine  Warning

Protection System (EWPS), and IAH operation. The

ECT is a backup, if the EOT is out-of-range. The ECT

sensor is installed in the water supply housing, to the

right of the flat idler pulley assembly.

Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) Sensor

The ECM monitors the EOT signal  and uses this

information to control fuel quantity and timing when

operating the engine. The EOT signal  allows the

ECM to compensate for differences in oil viscosity for

temperature changes. The EOT sensor is located

in the rear  of the front cover, to the  left of the

high-pressure pump assembly.

Inlet Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor

The ECM monitors the IAT signal to control injector

timing and fuel rate during cold starts. The ECM also

uses the IAT signal to control NOx position. The IAT

sensor is installed in the air filter housing.

Manifold Air Temperature (MAT) Sensor

The ECM monitors the MAT signal for operation of

the NOx Reduction System (NRS). The MAT sensor

is located in the intake manifold, to the right of the

MAP sensor.

Variable Capacitance Sensors

Variable capacitance sensors measure pressure. The

pressure measured is applied to a ceramic material.

The pressure forces the ceramic material closer to a

thin metal disk. This action changes the capacitance

of the sensor.

The sensor is connected to the ECM by the VREF,

signal, and signal ground wires.

The sensor receives the VREF and returns an analog

signal voltage to the ECM. The ECM compares the

voltage with pre-programmed values to determine

pressure.

The operational range of a variable  capacitance

sensor is linked to the thickness of the ceramic disk.

The thicker the ceramic disk the more pressure the

sensor can measure.

Variable capacitance sensors include the following:

•  Engine Fuel Pressure (EFP) sensor

•  Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) sensor

•  Exhaust Back Pressure (EBP) sensor

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KENR8772

23

Systems Operation  Section

g02730805

Illustration 15

A typical example of a schematic  for the engine pressure sensors

Engine Fuel Pressure (EFP) Sensor

Magnetic Pickup Sensors

The ECM uses the EFP sensor  signal to monitor

engine fuel pressure and give an indication when the

fuel filter needs to be changed. The EFP sensor is

installed in the fuel filter housing on the left side of

the crankcase.

A magnetic pickup sensor contains a permanent

magnet core that is surrounded by a  coil of wire.

The sensor generates a voltage signal through the

collapse of a magnetic  field that is created by a

moving metal trigger. The movement of the trigger

then creates an AC voltage in the sensor coil.

Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) Sensor

Magnetic pickup sensors used include the following:

•  Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor

The ECM monitors the EOP signal, and uses  this

information for the instrument panel pressure gauge

and EWPS. The EOP sensor is installed in the left

side of the crankcase, below the left side of the fuel

filter housing.

•  Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor

Exhaust Back Pressure (EBP) Sensor

The ECM monitors the exhaust pressure so that the

ECM can control the turbocharger, NOx Reduction

System (NRS), and intake throttle  systems. The

sensor provides feedback to the ECM  for closed

loop control of the turbocharger. The EBP sensor is

installed in a bracket mounted on the water supply

housing (Freon® compressor bracket).

Manifold Air Pressure (MAP) Sensor

The ECM monitors the MAP signal  to determine

intake manifold pressure (boost). This information

is used to control the turbocharger boost. The MAP

sensor is installed in the intake manifold, left of the

MAT sensor.

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KENR8772

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g02730800

Illustration 16

A typical example of a schematic  for speed/timing sensors

Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor

The CKP sensor provides the ECM  with a signal

that indicates crankshaft speed and position. As the

crankshaft turns, the CKP sensor detects a 60 tooth

timing disk on the crankshaft. Teeth 59 and 60 are

missing. By comparing the CKP signal with the CMP

signal, the ECM calculates engine rpm and timing

requirements. The CKP sensor is installed in the top

left side of the flywheel housing.

Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor

The CMP sensor provides the ECM with a signal that

indicates camshaft position. As the cam rotates, the

sensor identifies the position of the cam by locating

a peg on the cam. The CMP sensor  is installed in

the front cover, above and to the right of the water

pump pulley.

Micro Strain Gauge (MSG) Sensors

A Micro Strain Gauge  (MSG) sensor measures

pressure. Pressure to be measured exerts force on

a pressure vessel that stretches and compresses

to change resistance of strain gauges  bonded to

the surface of the pressure vessel. Internal sensor

electronics convert the changes in resistance to a

ratiometric voltage output.

The sensor is connected to the ECM by the VREF,

signal, and signal ground wires.

The sensor is powered by VREF received from the

ECM and is grounded through the ECM to a common

sensor ground. The ECM compares the voltage with

pre-programmed values to determine pressure.

The micro strain gauge type sensor is the following:

•  Injection Control Pressure (ICP)

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KENR8772

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Systems Operation  Section

g02730804

Illustration 17

A typical example of a schematic  for injection control pressure sensor

Injection Control Pressure (ICP)

The ECM monitors the ICP  signal to determine

injection control pressure for engine operation. The

ICP signal is used to control the IPR valve. The ICP

sensor provides feedback to the ECM for  Closed

Loop IPR control. The  ICP sensor is under the

valve cover, forward of the No. 6 fuel injector in the

high-pressure oil manifold.

Switches

Switch sensors indicate position, level, or  status.

They operate open or closed, regulating the flow of

current. A switch sensor can be a voltage input switch

or a grounding switch. A voltage input switch supplies

the ECM with a voltage when it is closed. A grounding

switch grounds the circuit when closed, causing a

zero voltage signal. Grounding switches are usually

installed in series with a current limiting resistor.

Switches include the following:

•  Engine Coolant Level (ECL) (if equipped)

•  Water In Fuel (WIF)

g02730839

Illustration 18

A typical example of a  schematic for the water in fuel switch

Engine Coolant Level (ECL) (if equipped)

ECL is part of the Engine Warning Protection System

(EWPS). The ECL switch is used in plastic deaeration

tanks. When a magnetic switch is open, the tank is

full.

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Water In Fuel (WIF)

A Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor in the element cavity

of the fuel filter housing detects water. When enough

water accumulates in the element cavity, the WIF

sensor signal changes to the  Electronic Control

Module (ECM). The ECM  sends a message to

illuminate the amber water and fuel lamp, alerting

the operator. The WIF is installed in the base of the

fuel filter housing.

i04208485

Power Sources

Introduction

The 1600 Series industrial engine supplies power

to the ECM.

The ECM powers the following components:

•  All sensors on the engine

•  Electronic unit injectors

ECM Power Supply

The power supply to the ECM  and the system is

drawn from the 24 V battery. The power supply for

the ECM has the following components:

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Systems Operation  Section

g02730797

Illustration 19

Typical example

•  Battery

•  Machine interface connector

•  Disconnect switch

•  Key start switch

•  Fuses

The schematic for  the ECM shows the  main

components for a typical power supply circuit. Battery

voltage is supplied through a relay to the ECM. The

input from the key start switch enables a relay that

turns on the ECM.

•  Ground bolt

•  ECM connector

The wiring  harness can be  bypassed for

troubleshooting purposes.

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KENR8772

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The display screen on the electronic service tool can

be used in order to check the voltage supply.

Power Supply for the  Pressure

Sensors

g02730805

Illustration 20

A typical example of a schematic  for the engine pressure sensors

The ECM supplies 5.0 ± 0.2 VDC volts through the

ECM connector to each sensor. The power supply is

protected against short circuits. A short in a sensor or

a wiring harness will not cause damage to the ECM.

Power supply for the  Air Intake

Grid Heater

g02730798

Illustration 21

Typical example

i04031132

Fuel System

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KENR8772

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Systems Operation  Section

g02729237

Illustration 22

Typical example

(1) Electronic Control Module (ECM)

(2) Crankshaft position sensor

(3) Camshaft position sensor

(4) Engine oil pressure sensor

(5) Manifold air pressure sensor

(6) Throttle (if equipped)

(7) Inlet air temperature sensor

(8) Engine fuel pressure sensor

(9) Exhaust back pressure sensor

(10) Injector control pressure sensor

(11) Engine coolant temperature sensor

(12) Manifold air temperature sensor

(13) Valve for the NOx Reduction  System

(NRS) (if equipped)

(14) Fuel supply system

(15) Lubrication system

(16) Injection Control Pressure (ICP) system

The fuel management system includes the following:

•  Lubrication system

•  Fuel injectors

•  Electronic control system

•  Injection Control Pressure (ICP) system

•  Fuel supply system

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Injection Control Pressure (ICP)

System

g02729551

Illustration 23

Typical example

(1) Unit injector actuation oil manifold

(2) Injector  oil inlet from Unit  injector

actuation oil manifold

(4) Fuel inlet port

(8) Electronic unit injector

(9) High-pressure oil hose

(5) Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) valve

(6) Oil inlet from front cover reservoir

(7) Unit Injector Hydraulic Pump

(3) Oil outlet

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Systems Operation  Section

High-Pressure Oil Flow

When ICP signals that are out-of-range, the ECM

ignores out-of-range signals and  go into open

loop operation. The IPR valve  will operate from

programmed default values.

The lubrication system constantly  refills the oil

reservoir located in the front cover.  The reservoir

provides oil for the high-pressure oil pump. The pump

is mounted on the backside of the front cover and

gear driven from the front of the engine.

The ICP sensor is installed in the high-pressure oil

manifold under the valve cover.

High-pressure oil is directed to the high-pressure oil

hose, cylinder head passage, and high-pressure oil

manifold, which is located beneath the valve cover.

Fuel Injector

High-pressure oil is used by  the fuel injectors to

inject, pressurize, and atomize fuel in the cylinders.

This occurs when the open coil for each fuel injector

is energized.

Excess high-pressure oil is directed to the crankcase

sump by the Injection Pressure  Regulator (IPR)

valve. The IPR valve is controlled  by the Engine

Control Module (ECM) to maintain a desired injection

control pressure.

Injection Control Pressure (ICP) Closed

Loop System

The Injection Control Pressure  (ICP) system is

a closed loop system  that uses the ICP sensor

to continuously provide injection control pressure

feedback to the ECM. The ECM commands the IPR

duty cycle to adjust ICP pressure to match engine

requirements.

Injection Control Pressure (ICP) Control

System

The Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR)  solenoid

receives a pulse-width modulated signal from the

ECM. This indicates the on and  off time the IPR

control valve is energized. The pulse is calibrated

to control ICP pressure which ranges from  5 MPa

(725 psi) up to 32 MPa (4641 psi).

g02729963

Illustration 24

Typical example

(1) Upper O-ring

(2) Lower O-ring

(3) Combustion washer

(4) Injector nozzle

(5) Fuel inlet port

The IPR valve  is mounted in the  body of the

high-pressure pump. The IPR  valve maintains

desired injection control pressure by dumping excess

oil back to the crankcase sump.

Two 48V, 20 amp coils control  a spool valve that

directs oil flow  in and out of  the injector. The

injector coils are turned on for approximately  800

(microseconds). Each injector has a single four pin

connector that couples to the valve cover  gasket

assembly.

As demand for injection control pressure increases,

the ECM increases the  pulse-width modulation

to the IPR solenoid. When  demand for injection

control pressure decreases, the duty cycle to the IPR

solenoid decreases and more oil is allowed to flow

to the drain orifice.

An open coil and a close coil on the injector move the

spool valve from side to side using magnetic force.

The spool has two positions:

When the injection control pressure electrical signal

is out-of-range, the ECM sets a Diagnostic Trouble

Code (DTC). The ECM  will not set DTCs if  an

injection control pressure signal corresponds to an

in-range valve for injection control pressure  for a

given operating condition.

When the spool valve is open, oil flows  into the

injector from the high-pressure oil manifold.

When the spool valve is  closed, oil exits from

the top of the fuel injector and drains back to the

crankcase.

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When the spool valve is  open, high-pressure oil

enters the injector pushing down the intensifier piston

and plunger. Since the intensifier piston is 7.6 times

greater in surface area than the plunger, the injection

pressure is also 7.6 times  greater than injection

control pressure on the plunger.

Fuel pressure builds at the base of the  plunger in

the barrel. When the intensifier piston pushes the

plunger down, the plunger increases fuel pressure

in the barrel 7.6 times greater than injection control

pressure. The plunger has a hardened coating  to

resist scuffing.

The injector needle opens inward when fuel pressure

overcomes the Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) of

28 MPa (4061 psi). Fuel is injected at high pressure

through the nozzle tip.

Fuel Injector Operation

The injector operation has three stages:

•  Fill stage

•  Injection

•  End of injection

g02729965

Illustration 25

Typical example

(1) Oil inlet from rail

(2) Coil

(3) Spool

(4) Plunger

(5) Barrel

(6) Needle

(7) Nozzle holes

(8) Nozzle

(9) Fuel inlet

(10) Intensifier piston

(11) Coil

Fill Stage

During the fill stage both coils are de-energized and

the spool valve is closed. High-pressure oil from the

high-pressure oil manifold is stopped at the spool

valve.

Low-pressure fuel fills the four  ports and enters

through the edge filter on the way to the  chamber

beneath the plunger. The needle control spring holds

the needle onto the seat to prevent fuel from entering

the combustion chamber.

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KENR8772

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Systems Operation  Section

Injection

A pulse-width controlled current energizes the open

coil. Magnetic force moves the spool valve  open.

High-pressure oil flows past the  spool valve and

onto the top of the intensifier  piston. Oil pressure

overcomes the force of the intensifier piston spring

and the intensifier starts to move down. An increase

in fuel pressure under the plunger seats the fuel inlet

check ball, and fuel pressure starts to build on  the

needle.

The pulse-width controlled current  to the open

coil is shut off, but the spool  valve remains open.

High-pressure oil from high-pressure oil manifold

continues to flow past the spool valve. The intensifier

piston and plunger  continue to move and fuel

pressure increases in the barrel. When fuel pressure

rises above the VOP, the needle lifts off the seat and

injection begins.

End of Injection

When the ECM determines that the correct injector

on-time has been reached (the correct amount of fuel

has been delivered), the ECM sends a pulse-width

controlled current to the close coil of the injector. The

current energizes the close coil and magnetic force

closes the spool valve. High-pressure oil is stopped

against the spool valve.

The pulse-width controlled current to close the coil

is shut off, but the spool valve remains closed. Oil

above the intensifier piston flows past the spool valve

through the exhaust ports. The intensifier piston and

plunger return to their initial positions. Fuel pressure

decreases until the needle control spring forces the

needle back onto the seat.

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Fuel Supply System

g02729994

Illustration 26

Typical example of low-pressure fuel  system

(1) Cylinder head

(2) Electronic unit injector

(3) Fuel filter cap

(4) Fuel filter base

(5) Diagnostic coupling assembly and dust

cap

(6) Transfer pump outlet tube assembly

(7) Water drain valve

(8) Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor

(9) Engine Fuel Pressure (EFP) sensor

(10) Low-pressure fuel pump

(12) Fitting assembly with check valve

(13) Fuel priming pump

(14) Fuel strainer cap

(15) Low-pressure fuel rail

(11) Transfer pump inlet tube assembly

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Systems Operation  Section

g02730792

Illustration 27

Typical example of the fuel supply  system flow

(A) Fuel strainer

(F) Fuel tank

(8) Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor

(B) Fuel standpipe (fuel entry high point)

(C) Fuel pressure regulator valve

(D) Fuel filter service drain to tank valve

(E) Diagnostic port

(2) Electronic unit injector

(4) Fuel filter base that includes  fuel filter

and water separator

(9) Engine Fuel Pressure (EFP) sensor

(10) Low-pressure fuel pump

(13) Fuel priming pump

(7) Water drain valve

(15) Low-pressure fuel rail

The low-pressure fuel pump draws fuel through the

fuel lines from the fuel tank. Fuel enters the fuel filter

header assembly and passes through the 150 micron

strainer.

Fuel flows through  the filter element and  the

standpipe. The filter element removes debris from

the fuel. The standpipe prevents fuel from draining

from the fuel rail during service.

Fuel flows from the strainer through the low-pressure

fuel pump to the fuel filter for further conditioning.

If water is in the fuel, the fuel  filter element repels

the water. The water is collected at the bottom of the

main filter element cavity in the fuel filter assembly.

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When the maximum amount of water is collected in

the element cavity, the Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor

sends a signal to the Engine Control Module (ECM).

A water drain valve  is located on the fuel  filter

assembly and can be opened to drain contaminants

(usually water) from the assembly.

A fuel pressure regulator  valve is built into the

fuel filter header assembly. The regulator valve is

calibrated to open at 455 ± 34 kPa  (66 ± 5 psi) to

regulate and relieve excessive fuel pressure. Excess

fuel is sent through a fuel return line back to the fuel

tank. Return fuel is not filtered.

Fuel continuously flows from  the top of the filter

element cavity, through a 0.2 mm air purge orifice

(filter center tube feature), and into the  return fuel

line. This aids in  removing trapped air from the

element cavity as a result of servicing.

When the fuel  filter is removed, an automatic

drain-to-tank valve is opened. Fuel present in the

filter housing then drains out and back to the tank to

provide improved cleanliness during servicing.

The Engine Fuel Pressure (EFP) sensor detects low

fuel pressure caused by a fuel  restriction or dirty

fuel filter. The EFP sensor  sends a signal to the

ECM when pressure is below programmed values for

various engine conditions.

Filtered fuel flows from the fuel filter header assembly

into the fuel rail. The fuel rail is an integral part of the

intake manifold. The fuel flows into six cylinder head

passages to each fuel injector.

When the fuel injectors are activated, fuel flows from

the fuel passages through the injector inlet ports and

inside the fuel injectors.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

KENR8772

37

Systems Operation  Section

i04031072

Air Inlet and Exhaust System

g02729092

Illustration 28

Typical example

(1) Inlet Air Heater Control (IAHC)

(2) Valve for the  NOx Reduction System

(NRS) (if equipped)

(4) Inlet manifold air pressure sensor

(8) Turbocharger

(9) Exhaust gas cooler (NRS) (if equipped)

(5) Charge Air Cooler (CAC)

(6) Exhaust back pressure sensor

(7) Air filter assembly

(3) Inlet air temperature sensor

Note: The white arrows show the flow of inlet air. The

black arrows show the flow of exhaust gases.

•  Turbocharger

•  Charge Air Cooler (CAC)

•  Intake throttle valve

The engine components of the air inlet and exhaust

system control the quality of air and the amount of

air that is available for combustion. The components

of the air inlet and exhaust system are the following

components:

•  NOx Reduction System (NRS) (if equipped)

•  Inlet manifold

•  Air cleaner

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

38

KENR8772

Systems Operation  Section

•  Inlet Air Heater Control (IAHC)

•  Valves and valve system components

•  Piston and cylinder

•  Exhaust manifold

Air flows through the air filter assembly and enters

the turbocharger. The turbocharger compressor

increases the pressure, temperature, and density of

the intake air before the air enters  the Charge Air

Cooler (CAC). Cooled compressed air flows from the

CAC into the inlet manifold and duct of the control

valve for the exhaust gas valve.

If the control valve for the exhaust gas valve is open,

exhaust gas will pass through the NOx Reduction

System (NRS) and mix with the filtered  intake air.

This mixture flows through the inlet air heater and

into the inlet manifold.

If the control valve  for the exhaust gas valve is

closed, only filtered intake air will flow through the

inlet air heater and into the inlet manifold.

After combustion gases exit through the  exhaust

valves and ports, the  gas is forced through the

exhaust manifold to the NRS and turbocharger.

Some gas flows through the NRS system, which is

controlled by the exhaust gas valve. The remaining

gas flows to the turbocharger turbine.

The compressor wheel is connected to the turbine

wheel by a shaft. The  turbocharger compressor

wheel compresses the filtered air.

Exhaust gases exit the turbocharger and are released

from the exhaust system.

Charge Air Cooler (CAC)

The Charge Air Cooler (CAC) is  mounted on top

of the radiator. Air from the  turbocharger passes

through a network of heat exchanger tubes before

entering the engine intake system. Outside air flowing

over the heat exchanger tube fins cools the charge

air. Cooling the charge air increases the density and

improves the air to fuel ratio during combustion.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

KENR8772

39

Systems Operation  Section

NOx Reduction System (NRS) (If

equipped)

g02730874

Illustration 29

Typical example

(1) Exhaust gas cooler (NRS)

(2) Inlet manifold

(3) Metering tube

(5) Valve drive module

(6) Valve for the NOx  Reduction System

(NRS)

(8) Coolant supply tube

(4) Exhaust gas valve (NRS)

(7) Coolant return tube

The NOx Reduction System (NRS) reduces Nitrogen

Oxide (NOx) engine emissions. NOx forms during

a reaction between nitrogen and  oxygen at high

temperatures during combustion. Combustion starts

when fuel is injected into the compressed combustion

chamber.

Metered exhaust gas from the  exhaust manifold

flows into the exhaust gas cooler. Cooled exhaust

gas flows through the exhaust tube assembly to the

exhaust gas control valve.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

40

KENR8772

Systems Operation  Section

When a reduction in NOx is required, the exhaust

gas control valve opens and allows cooled exhaust

gas to enter. This exhaust gas is directed into  the

exhaust gas valve duct where the exhaust  gas is

mixed with filtered inlet air.

Turbocharger

Exhaust Gas Control Valve (If equipped)

The exhaust gas control valve consists of three major

components, a valve, an actuator  motor, and an

Integrated Circuit (IC).

The exhaust gas control valve  is installed in the

exhaust gas valve manifold on the top front of  the

engine.

The exhaust gas valve uses a DC motor to control

position of the valve assembly. The motor pushes

directly on the valve stem to open. The valve is shut

by a spring. The valve assembly  has two poppet

valves on a common shaft.

The Integrated Circuit (IC)  has three hall effect

position sensors to monitor valve movement.

g00302786

Illustration 30

Typical example of a cross section of a turbocharger

(1) Air intake

NOx Reduction System Closed  Loop

System (If equipped)

(2) Compressor housing

(3) Compressor wheel

(4) Bearing

(5) Oil inlet port

(6) Bearing

The ECM commands the exhaust gas control valve

position based on engine speed and load conditions.

The exhaust gas control valve provides feedback to

the ECM on current valve position.

(7) Turbine housing

(8) Turbine wheel

(9) Exhaust outlet

(10) Oil outlet port

(11) Exhaust inlet

The turbocharger is mounted on the outlet  of the

exhaust manifold. The exhaust gas from the exhaust

manifold enters the exhaust inlet (11) and passes

through the turbine housing (7) of the turbocharger.

Energy from the exhaust gas causes  the turbine

wheel (8) to rotate. The turbine wheel is connected

by a shaft to the compressor wheel (3).

As the turbine wheel rotates, the compressor wheel

is rotated. The rotation of the  compressor wheel

causes the intake air to be pressurized through the

compressor housing (2) of the turbocharger.

When the load on the engine increases, more fuel

is injected into the cylinders.  The combustion of

this additional fuel produces more exhaust gases.

The additional exhaust gases cause the turbine and

the compressor wheels of the turbocharger to turn

faster. As the compressor wheel turns faster, air is

compressed to a higher pressure and more  air is

forced into the cylinders. The increased flow of air

into the cylinders allows the fuel  to be burnt with

greater efficiency. This produces more power.

When engine load is light, the flow of exhaust gases

decreases which causes reduction in air volume and

boost pressure.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

KENR8772

41

Systems Operation  Section

A wastegate is installed on the turbine housing  of

the turbocharger. The wastegate is  a valve that

allows exhaust gas to bypass the turbine wheel of

the turbocharger. The operation of the wastegate is

dependent on the pressurized air (boost pressure)

from the turbocharger compressor.

The valve system components control the flow  of

inlet air into the cylinders during engine operation.

The valve system components also control the flow

of exhaust gases out of the cylinders during engine

operation.

The crankshaft gear drives the camshaft gear through

an idler gear. The camshaft (5) must be timed to the

crankshaft in order to get the correct relation between

the piston movement and the valve movement.

The shaft that connects the turbine to the compressor

wheel rotates in bearings (4) and (6). The bearings

require oil under pressure for lubrication and cooling.

The oil that flows to the lubricating oil inlet port (5)

passes through the center of the turbocharger which

retains the bearings. The oil exits the turbocharger

from the lubricating oil outlet port (10) and returns

to the oil pan.

The camshaft (5) has two camshaft lobes for each

cylinder. The lobes operate either  a pair of inlet

valves or a pair of exhaust valves. As the camshaft

turns, lobes on the camshaft  cause the lifter (4)

to move the pushrod  (3) up and down. Upward

movement of the pushrod (3) against the rocker arm

(2) results in a downward movement that acts on the

valve bridge (1). This action opens a pair of valves

(7) which compresses the valve springs (6). When

the camshaft has rotated to the peak of the lobe, the

valves are fully open.

Crankcase Breather

NOTICE

The crankcase breather gases are part of the engines

measured emissions output.  Any tampering with the

breather system  could invalidate  the engines  emis-

sions compliance.

When the camshaft (5) rotates further, the two valve

springs (6) under compression start to expand. The

valve stems are under tension of the springs. The

stems are pushed upward in order to maintain contact

with the valve bridge (1).  The continued rotation

of the camshaft (5) causes the rocker arm (2), the

pushrods (3) and the lifters (4) to move downward

until the lifter reaches the bottom of the  lobe. The

valves are now closed. The cycle is repeated for all

the valves on each cylinder.

A open crankcase breather system uses an engine

mounted oil separator to return oil to the crankcase

and vent crankcase pressure into the intake system.

The open crankcase ventilation system separates oil

from crankcase gases and returns oil to the oil pan.

A turbine in the breather housing assembly is driven

by engine oil pressure.

i04031012

Valve System Components

Lubrication System

g02440436

Illustration 31

Typical example

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

42

KENR8772

Systems Operation  Section

g02729107

Illustration 32

Typical example

(1) Valve mechanism cover

(2) Rocker shaft assembly

(3) Reservoir for unit injector hydraulic pump

(4) Unfiltered oil gallery

(5) Housing (front)

(6) Oil pump

(7) Crankcase breather

(8) Suction pipe

(9) Turbocharger

(10) Oil cooler

(11) Oil filter

(12) Oil filter base

(13) Oil pressure regulator relief valve

(14) Regulator relief valve drain

(15) Oil pan

(17) Piston cooling jet

(18) Main filtered oil gallery

(19) Camshaft

(20) Cylinder block

(21) Vertical gallery

(22) Cylinder head

(16) Crankshaft

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

KENR8772

43

Systems Operation  Section

Unfiltered oil is drawn  from the oil pan through

the suction pipe and front  cover passage by the

crankshaft driven oil pump. Pressurized oil is forced

through a front cover passage, into the cylinder block

gallery, and to the engine oil cooler assembly. Oil flow

at the engine oil cooler assembly is controlled by the

oil thermal valve assembly.

The turbocharger is lubricated with filtered oil from a

supply tube assembly that connects the oil system

module assembly to the  center housing of the

turbocharger. Oil drains back to the oil pan through a

drain tube connected to the cylinder block.

The front gear train is lubricated with oil that drains

from the high-pressure reservoir.

The thermal valve assembly allows unfiltered oil to

bypass the oil cooler when the oil temperature is cold,

and flow directly to the oil filter. As the oil temperature

begins to warm, the thermal valve assembly begins

to open. This allows unfiltered oil to flow into the oil

cooler and oil filter.

i04031016

Cooling System

When the oil temperature is hot, the thermal valve

assembly allows unfiltered oil to flow through the oil

cooler before entering the oil filter.

Unfiltered oil moves through plates in the oil cooler

heat exchanger. Engine coolant flows around the

plates to cool the surrounding oil.

Oil that exits or bypasses the oil cooler mixes and

enters the spin-on oil filter. Oil flows from outside the

filter element towards the inside to remove debris.

When the filter is restricted, the oil filter bypass opens

and allows oil to bypass the filter to maintain engine

lubrication. The oil filter bypass is located in the oil

system module assembly. The filter bypass valve

opens when pressure reaches 345 kPa (50 psi).

After passing through the filter, the oil travels past the

oil pressure regulator. The regulator directs excess

oil back to the oil pan to maintain oil pressure at  a

maximum of 379 kPa (55 psi).

Clean regulated oil enters the main oil gallery of the

engine to lubricate the crankshaft, camshaft, and

lifters. The crankshaft has cross-drillings that direct

oil to the connecting rods.

Oil is also provided to the high-pressure reservoir

through a passage in the front cover.

Piston cooling jets continuously direct cooled oil to

the oil gallery of the piston. The piston cooling jets

direct oil to the piston pin for lubrication purposes.

Oil from the main oil gallery exits upwards through

a passage at the rear of  the crankcase. Oil flows

through a passage in the cylinder head and enters the

hollow rocker shaft which lubricates the rocker arms.

The crankcase breather assembly  is driven by

unfiltered oil pressure taken from the right side  of

the crankcase. Oil flows from the crankcase into the

breather assembly. Passages direct the oil through a

pressed brass nozzle that controls oil flow into a drive

wheel. Oil drains into the base and mixes with waste

oil from the breather system. The collected oil drains

into the cylinder block and then into the oil pan.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

44

KENR8772

Systems Operation  Section

g02729201

Illustration 33

Typical example

(1) Exhaust gas cooler (NRS) (if equipped)

(2) Water temperature regulator

(3) Cylinder head

(4) Cylinder block

(5) Water pump

(6) Engine oil cooler assembly

The engine cooling system includes the following:

•  Radiator

•  Cooling fan

•  Water inlet elbow

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

KENR8772

45

Systems Operation  Section

•  Water pump

The exhaust gas cooler receives coolant from the

water pump through a supply tube. Coolant passes

between the exhaust gas  cooler plates, travels

parallel to the exhaust flow, and exits into another

coolant tube. Coolant is supplied to the intake side

exhaust gas cooler from this tube. Coolant passes

between the exhaust gas cooler plates, parallel to

the exhaust flow, and exits into the  coolant return

tube which , connects to the  cylinder head water

jacket. The deaeration port on the top of the intake

side exhaust gas cooler directs coolant and trapped

air through the exhaust gas valve and towards the

coolant surge tank.

•  Cylinder block

•  Cylinder liners

•  Cylinder head

•  Engine oil cooler assembly

•  Water temperature regulator

•  Exhaust gas cooler (NRS) (if equipped)

•  Exhaust gas valve (NRS) (if equipped)

•  Surge tank

An optional coolant heater is  available to warm

engine coolant in cold weather. The coolant heater

warms the coolant  surrounding the cylinders.

Warmed engine coolant aids in performance  and

fuel economy during start-up. The coolant heater is

located on the left side of the crankcase, in front of

the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

•  Coolant heater

Coolant is drawn from the radiator through an inlet

elbow and front cover by the water pump. The water

pump pushes coolant into a passage  in the front

cover.

The water temperature regulator has two outlets.

One directs coolant to the radiator when the engine

is at operating temperature. The other directs coolant

to the water pump until the engine reaches operating

temperature. The water temperature regulator begins

to open at 88° C (190° F) and is fully open at 96° C

(205° F).

Coolant flows to the cylinder  block and through

the water jackets from front to  rear. This coolant

flows around the cylinder liners to absorb heat from

combustion.

Swirling coolant flow in the  cylinder liner jackets

directs coolant through passages in the head gasket

and upwards into the cylinder head.

Coolant flows through the cylinder head water jackets

towards the water temperature regulator cavity at

the front of the cylinder head. Depending on coolant

temperature, the water temperature regulator can

direct in two directions to exit the cylinder head.

When the water temperature regulator is  closed,

coolant is directed through the bypass port, cylinder

block, front cover, and into the water pump.

When the water temperature regulator is open, the

bypass port is blocked, and coolant is directed from

the engine into the radiator.

Coolant passes through the radiator and is cooled

by moving air from the cooling fan. The coolant will

return to the engine through the inlet elbow.

g02729545

Illustration 34

The engine oil cooler assembly receives  coolant

from a passage in the cylinder block. Coolant passes

between the oil cooler plates and returns through a

tube leading back to the water pump suction passage

located in the front cover.

Typical example of a water temperature regulator closed

(A) Coolant flow to heater  port

(B) Coolant in from  engine

(C) Bypass to water pump

When engine coolant is below the 88° C (190° F) the

water temperature regulator is closed, blocking flow

to the radiator. Coolant is forced to flow through  a

bypass port back to the water pump.

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


 

46

KENR8772

Systems Operation  Section

Cylinder Block

g02729546

Illustration 35

g02394136

Typical example of a water temperature regulator open

Illustration 36

(D) Coolant out to radiator

(E) Coolant flow to heater  port

(F) Coolant in from  engine

Typical example

The cast iron cylinder block for the engine has six

cylinders which are arranged in-line. The cylinder

block is made of cast iron in order to provide support

for the full length of the cylinder bores.

When coolant temperature reaches the  nominal

opening temperature 88° C  (190° F) the water

temperature regulator opens allowing some coolant

to flow to the radiator. When coolant  temperature

exceeds 96° C (205° F), the lower seat blocks the

bypass port directing full coolant flow to the radiator.

The cylinder block has removable cylinder liners.

The cylinder block has seven main bearings which

support the crankshaft. The seven main bearing caps

have two bolts per main cap.

i04031088

Basic Engine

Thrust washers are installed on both sides of number

7 upper main bearing in order to control the end play

of the crankshaft.

Introduction

Passages supply the lubrication for the crankshaft

bearings. These passages are cast into the cylinder

block.

The eight major mechanical components of the basic

engine are the following parts:

The engine has a cooling jet that is installed in the

cylinder block for each cylinder. The piston cooling jet

sprays lubricating oil onto an oil gallery in the piston

in order to cool the piston.

•  Cylinder block

•  Cylinder head

•  Pistons

The cylinder block has bushes that are installed for

the camshaft journals.

•  Connecting rods

•  Crankshaft

A cylinder head  gasket is used between  the

engine block and the cylinder head in order to seal

combustion gases, water, and oil.

•  Vibration damper

•  Timing gear case and gears

•  Camshaft

This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


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